4/17 UTI: iBook Ch 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4/17 UTI: iBook Ch 11 Deck (35)
1

UTI basic definitions:

Upper Tract Infection v Lower Tract Infection?

Pyelonephritis?

Cystitis?

Prostatitis?

Urethritis?

Upper Tract Infection: infection above the bladder, including kidneys 

Lower Tract Infection: infection involving bladder and lower (urethra, prostate)

Pyelonephritis: kidney infection

Cystitis: bladder infection

Prostatitis: prostate infection

Urethritis: urethral infection

2

Ascending route of infection v hematogenous route?

Ascending: infection enters the urinary tract through the urethra

Hematogenous: infection is brought to the kidneys via bloodstream; enters urinary tract that way

3

Urine contamination v urine colonization?

Urine is normally sterile

Contamination: organisms in culture that were introduced from anatomy (foreskin, vulva) or environment -- not present in bladder

Colonization: organisms present in urine but not causing sx

4

symptomatic v asymptomatic UTI

There may or may not be symptoms with UTI.

Both will have significant growth of bacteria in urine.

 

5

symptoms of lower UTI?

dysuria, urgency, frequency, suprapubic pain

6

symptoms of upper UTI?

fever, flank pain (aka costo-vertebral angle pain), nausea, vomiting, sepsis

7

what is meant by complicated UTI?

-obstruction of the urinary tract due to anatomic abnormality or presence of foreign body (stone, catheter)

-functional disruption of flow due to neuromuscular issue

-abnormalities of immune function lowering host depenses, allowing establishment of infection in the urinary tract.

8

acute UTI v chronic UTI? how will they present? 

Acute: onset of sx will be a few days prior to pt presentation

Chronic: may be sx or asx, but will have significant #s of bacteria on culture.

9

Recurrent UTIs: re-infection v relapsing infection?

Re-infection: repeated bouts of sx, associated wtih significant bacterial growth from urine. new species of bacteria present with each episode (more common than relapsing infections)

Relapsing infection: repeated episodes, due to the same organism each time. Organism persists despite treatment. 

10

Risk factors for ascending UTI in women?

maternal history of UTIs

first UTI prior to age 15

new sex partner w increased activity

diaphragm, condom or spermacide usage

catheters or other instrumentation

11

what usually causes hematogenous seeding of the urinary tract?

usually caused by a bacteremia

12

a urine culture that grows Staph aureus should raise suspicion for what?

presence of staph bacteremia, or other intravascular staph infection such as infective endocarditis

13

what are 2 genetic characteristics that can promote or discourage UTIs?

why are women more predisposed to UTIs?

genetic characteristics: HLA types, blood types. seem to alter the adherence of bacteria within the urinary tract

women: short urethral length seems to encourage UTIs

14

what mechanical effects of urine or urodynamics can cause UTIs?

mechanical: urine flow can be altered by congenital abnormalities

over-distension may lead to inadequate drainage, pooling of urine in bladder, ascension of bacteria into the upper tract

15

a UTI in an infant should prompt what thought?

school age children through middle age: M or F more prone to UTIs?

geriatrics: M or F more prone to UTI?

-Infant UTI: consider congenital abnormality or urinary tract

-childhood thru middle age: women >> men

-geriatrics: men >> women (due to enlarged prostates)

16

what organism causes 95% of UTIs?

What causes a significant % of cystitis in young women?

UTIs: E Coli (bacteria)

cystitis: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

17

name 5 tests used to diagnose a UTI

-urinalysis

-leukocyte esterase reaction

-nitrite test

-urine gram stain

-urine culture

18

describe urinalysis

First step in lab analysis of a UTI

-more than 5-10 WBCs per high powered field indicates infection, as does presence of bacteria in urine sediment.

19

what is a leukocyte esterase reaction?

Dip stick test for UTI

75-95% sensitive

95% specific

20

what is a nitrite test?

dip stick test for UTI

based on the reduction of nitrate by bacteria in the urine. less useful than the leukocyte esterase reaction (also a dipstick test) due to false neg results

21

describe a urine gram stain

diagnostic test for UTI

seeing 1 organism per HPF of un-spun urine --> 10^5 organisms per cc --> significant bacteriuria.

may also provide info on gram pos v gram neg organisms

22

describe a urine culture

diagnostic test for UTI

determines presence of significant organisms in the urine

impt to have a clean sample (clean catch, mid stream) to avoid contamination with periurethral flora.

23

what number of organisms is diagnostic for a symptomatic patient?

what about for an asymptomatic patient?

symptomatic: greater than 10^2 organisms is diagnostic

asymptomatic: greater than 10^5 on two separate days (have to confirm due to potential contamination of sample)

24

what is an indication for imaging of the urinary tract?

Presence of complicated infection, anatomic differences, urodynamic conditions --> imaging (US, CT, MRI). 

Can also observe the urinary tract directly via cytoscopy.

25

How might a UTI present in infants/children?

what should I consider?

Might present as failure to thrive, unexplained fever, vomiting.

consider congenital abnormalities

26

Treatment of UTI in women of childbearing age?

Treatment when it is a re-infection?

treatment when it is a relapse?

If re-infection (repeat w different orgs), short course therapy (3d) is indicated. These women may benefit from prophylactic therapy (daily) or self-administration at first symptoms.

If relapse (same org), long course therapy (2-6 weeks) is indicated.

27

Management of UTIs during pregnancy?

Pregnancy: dilatation and altered peristalsis of the ureter. Predisposes -> bacterial ascent.

Screen all preggo women for bacteriuria, even if no symptoms.

Repeat cultures to ensure absence of bacteria.

28

UTIs in young men - what is the usual cause?

usually indicate an STD.

rarely, due to a congenital abnormality.

29

UTIs in the elderly: what is the prevalence?

when do we treat?

what will predispose an elderly patient to UTIs?

relatively high prevalence of UTIs in elderly

We only treat if it is symptomatic: there is no increased morbidity/mortality with asx UTIs in this group. 

Foley catheters predispose the elderly to UTIs. remove all catheters as soon as possible.

30

Prostatitis: when should I suspect this? 

when should I treat this?

what meds?

Suspect prostatitis in elderly men with recurrent UTIs and presence of prostatic enlargement. 

Treat acute prostatitis, 2 or more weeks of antibiotics (they penetrate poorly into the prostate).

Drugs: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and quinolones are best.

31

Drug to treat Lower Tract UTI in an outpatient?

TMP-SMX

as long as incidence of E Coli resistance to this is < 20% in local region.

32

Antibiotic for Upper Tract UTI in an outpatient?

Empiric ciprofloxacin.

ensure that blood levels obtained following oral ingestion are equiv to levels following IV administration

33

Antibiotics for UTI prophylaxis?

TMP-SMX

trimethoprim

nitrofurantoin

cephalexin

ciprofloxacin

34

Antibiotic for Upper Tract UTI in an inpatient?

amino-glycoside + ampicillin

this combo will cover gram neg organisms and enterococci. 

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