What are the criteria for diagnosing a learning disability?
IQ < 70
Developing before the age of 18
Deficits in adaptive functioning
What is a deficit in adaptive functioning?
Extreme: inability to walk, talk, feed yourself
through to minor difficulties in numeracy, literacy
What is the prevalence of learning disability in the population?
What is the average IQ of the population?
What is the IQ threshold needed to diagnose a learning disability?
What percentage of the population have an IQ < 70?
remember that you need to fulfill the other criteria to diagnose as learning disability
What is the Flynn effect?
IQ is increasing by 10 points per generation
by 10 points per person per decade
If a patient's IQ increases over 70 post-diagnosis with a learning disability, do they still have one?
not quite sure what he's talking about ngl
Are learning difficulties the same as learning disabilities?
Learning difficulty - deficit in a specific area e.g dyslexia
Learning disability - global deficit caused by arrest of intellectual development
Can learning disabilities start in adulthood?
Must have started before the age of 18
Is dyslexia a learning disability?
How is severity of a learning disability determined?
More severe as IQ decreases
People with an IQ hovering around 70 have a ___ learning disability.
What are the IQ thresholds for each severity of learning disability?
Borderline - hovering around 70
Mild - 50 to 69
Moderate - 35 to 49
Severe - 20 to 34
Profound - less than 20
The lower your IQ, the greater your likelihood of having which neurological disease?
In general, what tasks do people with learning disabilities struggle with?
Understanding new or complex information
Learning new skills
Looking after themselves
How is IQ calculated?
IQ = (MA/CA) x 100
MA = mental age, CA = chronological age
Does learning disability come under the umbrella of mental disorder?
What does this mean legally?
Patients can be detained under the MHA and treated under the Adults with Incapacity Act
What are some genetic causes of learning disability?
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
Angelman, Prader-Willi, Kilnefelter's, Turner's, Fragile X...
Which neurological disease is Down syndrome associated with?
Which genetic syndrome, causing overeating, is also associated with learning disability?
Which diseases are tested for in the newborn heel prick test?
Sickle cell anaemia
Metabolic diseases (most notably PKU)
What maternal problems, occuring before birth, may cause learning disability?
Drug or alcohol use
What type of trauma must be ruled out in children presenting with a learning disability?
"Shaken baby syndrome"