What is a functional hallucination?
Hallucination e.g visual, auditory which only occurs in response to a specific cue e.g a noise or sight
What is the definition of heritability?
Degree of variability in a trait that is caused by genetic differences in a population
Which type of twins are most likely to both develop schizophrenia?
from the same zygote
Which drug is highly associated with schizophrenia?
Does heroin have a hallucinogenic effect?
neither does withdrawal
What is the relationship between age, substance use and schizophrenia?
The younger you start on addictive drugs e.g cannabis, the more likely you are to be addicted AND develop schizophrenia
What happens to the brain grossly in poorly managed schizophrenia?
Why do the ventricles expand in diseases like Alzheimer's and schizophrenia?
To fill space left by atrophied brain
Which lobes atrophy in schizophrenia?
causing negative symptoms
In schizophrenia, (grey / white) matter reduces in size.
In schizophrenia, grey matter is lost from the brain.
What causes this?
Reduced connections between neurons
NOT neuronal loss as in Alzheimer's disease
Which neurotransmitter is implicated in psychosis?
Which addictive drug causes dopamine release in the brain and can worsen schizophrenia?
Which type of drug is used to treat schizophrenia?
Dopamine receptor antagonists
Which dopaminergic pathways start at the
a) substantia nigra
c) pituitary gland?
What are they responsible for?
a) Extrapyramidal motor pathway
b) Mesolimbic pathway
c) Prolactin pathway
Movement, motivation/reward and PRL action respectively
What effect do
b) dopamine antagonists
have on dopamine receptors?
What symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by dopamine
What does this mean for the effects of antipsychotic drugs?
a) Psychotic (positive) symptoms
b) Negative symptoms
Antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists, so they treat the hyperactive symptoms (psychosis) but NOT the hypoactive (negative) symptoms
What areas of the brain are affected by schizophrenia?
What are the two main groups of antipsychotic drugs?
Typical (1st generation)
Atypical (2nd generation)
Which side effect do most 1st generation antipsychotics cause?
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms
Which specific dopamine receptor is probably involved in schizophrenia?
Which class of antipsychotics are less likely to cause side effects?
Which neurotransmitters are involved in schizophrenia?
What is an example of extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by antipsychotics?
Acute dystonia - painful spasms
Which muscles can be affected by acute dystonia after a patient takes antipsychotic drugs?
How is acute dystonia caused by antipsychotics treated?
What is Parkinsonism?
How is it managed?
Parkinsonian symptoms (i.e tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability) with no underlying PD
Most commonly caused by drugs (e.g the dopamine antagonists given for schizophrenia)
Managed using anticholinergic drugs
What is akathisia?
How is akathisia managed?
Dose reduction of dopamine antagonist
Doesn't respond to anticholinergics
What is tardive dyskinesia?
Progressive onset of involuntary, repetitive movements
e.g grimacing, tongue rolling