1: Psychosis and schizophrenia Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry Week 3 2018/19 > 1: Psychosis and schizophrenia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Psychosis and schizophrenia Deck (39)
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1

What is a functional hallucination?

Hallucination e.g visual, auditory which only occurs in response to a specific cue e.g a noise or sight

2

What is the definition of heritability?

Degree of variability in a trait that is caused by genetic differences in a population

3

Which type of twins are most likely to both develop schizophrenia?

Monozygotic

from the same zygote

4

Which drug is highly associated with schizophrenia?

Cannabis

5

Does heroin have a hallucinogenic effect?

No

sedative, analgesic

neither does withdrawal

6

What is the relationship between age, substance use and schizophrenia?

The younger you start on addictive drugs e.g cannabis, the more likely you are to be addicted AND develop schizophrenia

7

What happens to the brain grossly in poorly managed schizophrenia?

Enlarged ventricles

8

Why do the ventricles expand in diseases like Alzheimer's and schizophrenia?

To fill space left by atrophied brain

9

Which lobes atrophy in schizophrenia?

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobe

causing negative symptoms

10

In schizophrenia, (grey / white) matter reduces in size.

grey matter

11

In schizophreniagrey matter is lost from the brain.

What causes this?

Reduced connections between neurons

NOT neuronal loss as in Alzheimer's disease

12

Which neurotransmitter is implicated in psychosis?

Dopamine

13

Which addictive drug causes dopamine release in the brain and can worsen schizophrenia?

Amphetamine

14

Which type of drug is used to treat schizophrenia?

Dopamine receptor antagonists

i.e antipsychotics

15

Which dopaminergic pathways start at the

a) substantia nigra

b) VTA

c) pituitary gland?

What are they responsible for?

a) Extrapyramidal motor pathway

b) Mesolimbic pathway

c) Prolactin pathway

Movement, motivation/reward and PRL action respectively

16

What effect do

a) amphetamine

b) dopamine antagonists

have on dopamine receptors?

a) Activation

b) Inhibition

17

What symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by dopamine

a) hyperactivity

b) hypoactivity?

What does this mean for the effects of antipsychotic drugs?

a) Psychotic (positive) symptoms

b) Negative symptoms

Antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists, so they treat the hyperactive symptoms (psychosis) but NOT the hypoactive (negative) symptoms

18

What areas of the brain are affected by schizophrenia?

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobes

19

What are the two main groups of antipsychotic drugs?

Typical (1st generation)

Atypical (2nd generation)

20

Which side effect do most 1st generation antipsychotics cause?

Extrapyramidal motor symptoms

21

Which specific dopamine receptor is probably involved in schizophrenia?

D2

22

Which class of antipsychotics are less likely to cause side effects?

2nd generation

23

Which neurotransmitters are involved in schizophrenia?

DOPAMINE

Glutamate

Serotonin

24

What is an example of extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by antipsychotics?

Acute dystonia - painful spasms

Parkinsonism

Akathisia

Tardive dyskinesia

25

Which muscles can be affected by acute dystonia after a patient takes antipsychotic drugs?

Neck

Back

Extraocular

26

How is acute dystonia caused by antipsychotics treated?

Anticholinergics

e.g duloxetine

27

What is Parkinsonism?

How is it managed?

Parkinsonian symptoms (i.e tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability) with no underlying PD

Most commonly caused by drugs (e.g the dopamine antagonists given for schizophrenia)

Managed using anticholinergic drugs

28

What is akathisia?

Severe restlessness

29

How is akathisia managed?

Dose reduction of dopamine antagonist

Doesn't respond to anticholinergics

30

What is tardive dyskinesia?

Progressive onset of involuntary, repetitive movements

e.g grimacing, tongue rolling