4: Immobility and rehabilitation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4: Immobility and rehabilitation Deck (16)
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1

Every trauma, illness or long-term condition causes some decrease in a patient's overall level of ___.

function

2

What is the name given to an age-related loss of muscle mass and function?

Sarcopenia

3

What is sarcopenia?

Age-related loss of muscle mass and function

i.e your muscles get smaller and they're not as strong or fast-acting

4

The criteria for sarcopenia are

1. reduced muscle mass

2. reduced muscle strength

3. reduced physical performance

What is a test which can be used to measure each?

1. Any imaging - MRI, CT, DEXA

2. Hand grip dynamometry

3. Observe gait or sit-to-stand test

5

At what age does sarcopenia start?

30 years

6

At what age does sarcopenia accelerate?

60 years

7

At what age does sarcopenia

a) start

b) accelerate?

a) 30 years

b) 60 years

8

As you age, muscle mass decreases and ___ mass increases.

fat mass increases

9

What endocrine condition are older people more susceptible to?

Why?

Diabetes

Increased fat deposition causes insulin resistance (body needs to make more insulin to transport glucose into adipose tissue, sugar everywhere, beta cells, I can't remember endocrine come back to this)

10

Why is immobility described as a vicious cycle?

Immobile people develop muscle atrophy

Atrophied muscles hinder physical activity

So patients exercise less

Lack of exercise causes muscle atrophy

11

People with sarcopenia have weaker muscles, making them more prone to falls.

What nutrients, when deficient, increase the likelihood of fracture following a fall?

Vitamin D

Calcium

12

What are

a) activity related

b) diet related

c) disease related causes of sarcopenia?

a) Muscle disuse

b) Starvation, malabsorption

c) Cachexia (e.g cancer cells using loads of energy, causing weight loss)

13

How is the rate of sarcopenia reduced?

Exercise

resistance training and aerobic training

14

What is the recommended amount of exercise for adults?

150 mins of moderate exercise per week

or 30 mins 5x/week

15

What nutritional supplements are proven to reduce the rate of sarcopenia?

Calcium

Vitamin D

Protein

Creatine

16

Which class of antihypertensive drug is thought to reduce the rate of sarcopenia?

ACE inhibitors