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Flashcards in 9: Stroke Deck (29)
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1

What is a stroke?

Rapidly developing loss of brain function due to a vascular event

2

Loss of brain function due to a stroke can be ___ or ___.

focal

global

3

What score is used to diagnose a stroke in A&E?

ROSIER score

4

What are the two main types of stroke?

Infarction

Haemorrhage

5

What does a CT head of an

a) infarction stroke

b) haemorrhagic stroke

look like?

a) Affected area is darker, smudged

b) Blood is lucent i.e bright white

6

What is a TIA?

Transient ischaemic attack

i.e mini stroke

7

What is the difference between a TIA and a stroke?

Time frame

TIA < 24hrs ongoing symptoms, stroke > 24hrs

8

What does TIA increase your risk of?

Stroke

9

___ intervention is key to reducing the risk of stroke following a TIA.

Early

10

How is suspected stroke investigated?

Imaging (CT or MRI scan)

Cardio investigations - blood pressure, ECG, carotid scans, angiograms...

Lifestyle - blood glucose, cholesterol, take a smoking history

11

What must be assessed before offering a stroke patient food or water?

Swallowing

To ensure patient doesn't aspirate

12

What is an emergency intervention which can be given to a patient acutely suffering a stroke?

Thrombolysis

13

Which classes of drug are given to patients to reduce the likelihood of another stroke?

Statins

Antiplatelets e.g aspirin, clopidogrel, ticagrelor

Anticoagulants e.g warfarin, apixaban, LMWH

14

Which imaging modes are better for picking up

a) haemorrhages

b) infarcts?

a) CT

b) MRI

15

Which antiplatelet drug is given for infarcts?

Aspirin

16

What cardio disease does immobility increase your risk of?

DVT

> MI, stroke...

17

Why isn't LMWH given for DVT prophylaxis in stroke patients?

Increases bleeding risk

18

What is used as DVT prophylaxis in stroke patients?

Pneumatic compression stockings

Intermittently expand and contract to push blood along

19

Why can patients aspirate following a stroke?

Impaired swallow

20

How can patients be assisted with feeding if they have an impaired swallow following a stroke?

NG feeding

Thicker, textured food

Parenteral nutrition

21

How are stroke patients assessed for malnutrition?

MUST score

22

What is a red thrombus?

Where are they formed?

Which drugs are effective for breaking them up?

Clot formed mainly of red blood cells and fibrin

Found in areas of low pressure and blood status e.g heart

AntiCOAGULANTS - warfarin, apixaban

23

What is a white thrombus?

Where are they formed?

Which drugs are effective for breaking them up?

Clot formed mainly of platelets

High pressure circulation e.g the arteries

AntiPLATELETS - aspirin, clopidogrel, ticagrelor

24

Patients who have had MIs, strokes etc. often have hypertension in the days following their event.

What drugs are given to control this and when?

Antihypertensives i.e ACE inhibitor, amlodipine at around 10 days post-event

25

What 

a) lifestyle advice

b) medication

is given to stroke patients for secondary prevention?

a) Stop smoking, exercise, diet...

b) Statin, antiplatelet, anticoagulant

26

Which arrythmia increases your risk of MI and stroke?

Atrial fibrillation

27

What scoring system is used to estimate a patient's risk of stroke?

CHA2D vasc score

revise from 1st year

28

What scoring system is used to estimate a patient's risk of bleeding while on anticoagulation?

HASBLED

29

What type of diet is thought to be cardioprotective?

Mediterranean diet

high in starchy food, fruit and veg; low in meat