400 Must Have Words For The Toefl (Cram) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 400 Must Have Words For The Toefl (Cram) Deck (400)
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To leave; to give up

1. abandon v. To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship. Parts of speech: abandonment n


In a harmful way; negatively

2. adversely adv. Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the plant– ing of crops. Usage tips: Adversely is often followed by affect. Parts of speech: adversity n, adverse adj


Gathered into or amounting to a whole

3. aggregate adj. It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers. Usage tips Aggregate is often followed by a term like sum, total, or numbers. Parts of speech: aggregate v, aggregate n


Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for agricultural purposes

4. cultivation n. With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place. Parts of speech: cultivate v
Farmers use various methods of land __________.


To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful substances to the soil

5. fertilize v. This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop. Parts of speech: fertilizer n, fertilization nInexperienced gardeners may not realize how important it is that they __________ their plants.


To increase in power; to act with increased strength

6. intensify v. Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry Rose. Parts of speech: intensification n, intense adj


The supplying of water to dry land

7. irrigation n. In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farm– land for irrigation. Parts of speech: irrigate v


To gain possession of; to get

8. obtain v. After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain the job.


The process by which green plants make their own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the pres– ence of light.

9. photosynthesis n. Oxygen is a by–product of the process of photosynthesis. Parts of speech: photosynthesize v


Water that falls to the Earth’s surface

10. precipitation n. In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich, green plant life.


To expect; to sense something before it happens

1. anticipate v. By placing sensors in earthquake–prone areas, scientists can antici– pate some tremors in time to warn the public. Parts of speech: anticipation n, anticipatory adj


Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin

2. catastrophic adj. The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident. Parts of speech: catastrophe n, catastrophically adv


To come together with great or violent force

3. collide v. As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in–laws’ views on poli– tics collided with their own. Parts of speech: collision n


A sudden, often violent, outburst

4. eruption n. The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and immeasurable change to the face of the mountain. Usage tips: Eruption is often followed by an of phrase. Parts of speech: erupt v


Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage

5. famine n. The potato famine in Ireland in the mid–nineteenth century caused large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.


An overflowing of water; an excessive amount

6. flood n. The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town. The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their opponents. Parts of speech: flood v


A strong influence

7. impact n. The speech about the importance of education made an impact on me. Usage tips: Impact is usually followed by on or of. Parts of speech: impact v


To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to maintain a purpose

8. persevere v. The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail. Parts of speech: persist v, persistent adj


To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a short time

9. plunge v. He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool. The value of the company’s stock plunged after its chief executive was arrested. Usage tips: Plunge is often followed by an into phrase. Parts of speech: plunge n


To release a thing or an emotion

10. unleash v. When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleashed their dogs. He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to un–leash his feelings.


To adjust to the circumstances; to make suitable

21. adapt v. to make suitable Dinosaurs could not adapt to the warmer temperatures. The teacher adapted the exercises for his more advanced students. Usage tips: Adapt is often followed by to. Parts of speech: adaptation n, adapter n, adaptable adj


Various; showing a lot of differences within a group

22. diverse n. India is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. Usage tips: An –ly adverb (e.g., linguistically) often comes before diverse. Parts of speech: diversify v, diversity n, diversification n


To develop; to come forth

3. evolve v. 2Modern–day sharks evolved from their ancestor Eryops, which lived more than 200 million years ago. Usage tips: Evolve is often followed by into or from. Parts of speech: evolution n, evolutionist n


Part, characteristic

24. feature n. The best feature of this car is its heated seats. Usage tips: Feature is often followed by of. Parts of speech feature v


A group of people born at about the same time

25. generation n. As older managers retired, a new generation of leaders took control of the company. Usage tips: Before generation, an adjective like new, next, earlier, or older is common. Generation is often followed by of. Parts of speech generational adj


Naturally characteristic; always found within something, because it’s a basic part of that thing

26. inherent adj. No job can be interesting all the time. Boredom is inherent in any kind of work. Usage tips: Inherent is often followed by in. Parts of speech: inherently adv


Movement from one place to another by a group of peo– ple or animals

27. migration n. The migration of farm workers from one state to the next depends primarily on the harvest. Usage tips: Migration is often followed by to or from. Parts of speech: migrate v, migrant n, migratory adj


Related to the body; related to materials that can be seen or felt

28. physical adj. Because of the shape of its throat, an ape does not have the physical ability to speak. The mountains form a physical barrier between the west and the east. Usage tips: Physical usually comes before the noun it describes. Parts of speech: physically adv


A series of steps leading to a result

29. process n. To get a good job, most people go through a long process of letter– writing and interviews. Usage tips: Process is often followed by of plus the –ing form of a verb. Parts of speech: proceed v, process v


To continue living (despite some danger or illness)

30. survive v. After getting lost in the mountains, Gordon survived by eating wild plants and catching fish. Usage tips: Survive is often followed by a phrase with by. Parts of speech: survivor n, survival n