4.1 DNA RNA and Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.1 DNA RNA and Protein Synthesis Deck (22):
1

What is the triplet code?

The bases of mRNA are read in threes when the are translated into amino acid

2

What is a codon?

A set of three bases which codes for 1 amino acid.

3

What is the template strand?

When DNA is transcribed it is the strand which is used to create the complimentary pre-mRNA

4

What is the coding strand?

The strand which codes for amino acids. This is copied when pre-mRNA is made by complimenting the template strand.

5

What is a genome?

All the genes which you posses

6

What is a proteome?

All the proteins that you can make.

7

What is an intron?

Non coding sections of gene.
These are used to space genes or help with the binding of histones.

8

What are histones?

Proteins which DNA winds around to tightly compact the helix into shapes such as chromosomes.

9

What are exons?

All coding sections of genes

10

What is splicing?

Before pre-mRNA can leave the nucleus, enzymes splice the introns out of the sequence. This is where the strand can finally be called mRNA

11

What are micro satellites?

Repeated units of sequence which vary in length and is unique to each person.

12

What is a gene?

A sequence of DNA which codes for proteins

13

What are alleles?

Different version of the same gene

14

What is a homologous chromosome?

Each chromosome is part of a homologous pair. 1 is your maternal and 1 is you paternal chromosome. The genes are in the same place but are different.

15

What is transcription?

mRNA makes a copy of the gene. In transcription DNA strand separate and the enzyme RNA polymerase lines up free nucleotides and joins together to form mRNA

16

What is translation?

The code of mRNA is read and the correct sequence of amino acids is assembled.

17

What is mRNA?

Messenger Ribonucleic acid

18

What is tRNA?

Transfer Ribonucleic acid

19

How does the genetic code safeguard against mutations?

Universal
Non overlapping
Degenerate code

20

What is prokaryotic DNA?

Short
circular
No histones

21

What is Eukaryotic DNA?

Long
Linear
Histones

22

What are histones?

Globular proteins which eukaryotic DNA wind around