2.4 Cells And The Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.4 Cells And The Immune System Deck (18):

What are pathogens?

Organisms which cause disease

ie) bacteria, viruses and fungi.


What are abnormal body cells?

Cancerous or pathogen infected cells have abnormal antigens on their surface which trigger an immune response.


What are toxins?

Poisonous molecules which can be produced by bacteria and can be responded to by the immune system


Why are antigens important in transfusions?

When you receive cells from other people, in blood or organ transfusion, they have different antigens to your normal body cells. These antigens can trigger an immune response leading to rejections and the need for drugs to prevent this.

The antigens in blood are A,B,O


What is a cellular response?

T cells and their immune system cells that they interact with eg) phagocytes


What is a humoral response?

B cells, clonal selection and the production of monoclonal antibodies.


What is ACTIVE NATURAL immunity?

Immunity you develop after a disease


What is ACTIVE ARTIFICIAL immunity?

Immunity developed after receiving a vaccine


What is PASSIVE NATURAL immunity?

This is when a baby becomes immune due to the antibodies it receives from its mother through placenta and breast milk.


What is ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE immunity?

This is when you become immune after being injected with someone else's antibodies.


What are antigens?

Molecules which generate an immune response.


What is HIV

A virus that targets host cells immune systems

Human immunodeficiency virus


What is AIDS?

Vulnerable to infections due to immune system being depleted

After HIV infection


How is HIV transmitted?

Body fluids


What is HIV host cells?

Kills helper T cells

So no chem signals to coordinate the Cytotoxic T cells, B cells and Phagocytes.


What is the latency period of HIV?

Many years of assymptomatic chronic stage.
No symptoms experiences.


What is the initial infection of HIV?

Flu like symptoms 2/4 weeks


What is the structure of HIV?

Envelope of protein
Attachment proteins
Capsid filled with RNA
and reverse transcriptase