410-412 - Cell junctions, shoulders, knees, and wrists Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 410-412 - Cell junctions, shoulders, knees, and wrists Deck (48):
1

Name the layers of the epidermis

Stratum Corneum (keratin)
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum (spines = desmosomes)
Stratum Basale (stem cell site)

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2

What proteins make up tight junctions?

claudins and occludins

3

What is another name for tight junction?

zonula occludens

4

What is the function of the tight junction?

prevents paracellular movement of solutes

5

Are tight junctions located near the apical or BL surface of the epithelial cell junction?

Apical

6

What is another name for adherents junction?

zonula adherens

7

What kind of junction is just below the tight junction in the epithelial junction?

adherens junctions

8

What is the function of the adherents junction?

forms a "belt" connecting actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells with CADherens (Ca2+ dependent adhesion proteins)

9

Loss of which proteins in the inter epithelial junction promotes metastasis?

E-cadherin

10

What is another name for a desmosome?

macula adherens

11

What is the function of desmosomes?

structural support via keratin interactions.

12

What disease is caused by autoantibodies against desmosomes?

pemphigus vulgaris

13

What proteins make up gap junctions?

connexons

14

What do gap junctions do?

permit electrical and chemical communication b/w cells

15

What connects keratin in basal cells to underlying basement membrane?

hemidesmosome

16

What condition is caused by autoantibodies against hemidesmosomes?

bullous pemphigoid
"hemidesmosomes are down "bullow"

17

What are membrane proteins that maintain the integrity of the BL membrane by binding to collagen and laminin in the BM?

integrins

18

What test is used to assess ACL injury?

anterior drawer sign

19

What test is used to assess PCL injury?

posterior drawer sign

20

Would you apply valgus stress or varus stress to assess an MCL injury?

valgus

21

Would you apply valgus stress or varus stress to assess an LCL injury?

varus

22

What is the McMurray test?

rotation of the knee to assess meniscal tears

23

Pain on external rotation of the knee indicates injury to which meniscus?

medial meniscus

24

Pain on internal rotation of the knee indicates injury to which meniscus?

lateral meniscus

25

What is the unhappy triad?

a common injury in contact sports due to the lateral force applied to a planted leg; classically damage to ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus (attached to MCL); note that lateral meniscus injury is more common

26

Do "anterior" and "posterior" in ACL and PCL refer to sites of tibial or femur attachment?

tibial

27

Is the fibula medial or lateral at the knee joint?

lateral

28

What is an important bony landmark for pudendal nerve block (e.g. to relieve pain of delivery)?

ischial spine

29

Where is the appendix located with respect to external anatomy?

2/3 of the distance b/w the umbilicus and the anterior superior iliac spine (McBurney point)

30

What is an important landmark for a lumbar puncture?

iliac crest

31

What are the shoulder muscles that form the rotator cuff?

SItS:
Suprapinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

32

What two muscles are innervated by the supra scapular nerve?

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus

33

What does the supraspinatus muscle do?

abducts arm initially (before the action of the deltoid)

34

What is the most common rotator cuff injury?

supraspinatus injury

35

what does the infraspinatus do?

Laterally rotates arm

36

What injury do pitchers often sustain to the shoulder muscles?

infraspinatus injury

37

what does the trees minor do?

adducts and laterally rotates arm

38

what nerve supplies teres minor?

axillary nerve

39

What nerve supplies the subscapularis?

subscapular nerve

40

what does the subscapularis do?

medially rotates and adducts the arm

41

What spinal levels are responsible for rotator cuff muscles?

primarily C5-C6

42

What are the 8 bones of the wrist? (start at the radial side proximally and make a loop back distally)

Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
(So long to pinky, here comes the thumb)

43

What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone?

scaphoid

44

Which wrist bone is prone to avascular necrosis owning to retrograde blood supply?

scaphoid

45

When dislocated, which wrist bone may cause acute carpal tunnel syndrome?

lunate

46

The ulnar nerve can be injured when this wrist bone breaks in a fall on an outstretched hand:

hamate

47

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

entrapment of median nerve in carpal tunnel → compression → paresthesia, pain, and numbness in distribution of the median n.

48

What is guyon canal syndrome?

compression of ulnar nerve at wrist or hand, classically seen in cyclists due to pressure from handlebars