4.2.3 - Research Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.2.3 - Research Methods Deck (45)
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1

Define aim?

A general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate

2

Define hypothesis?

A clear, precise, testable statement of what the researcher believes to be true

3

Give an aim about how sweets relate to health?

To investigate how sweets impact a person’s health

4

Give a non-directional hypothesis for how sweets relate to health?

There will be a difference between the life expectancy of someone who eats more than 3 bags of sweets a week, compared to someone who eats less than 3 bags of sweets a week

5

Give a directional hypothesis for how sweets relate to health?

A person who eats more than 3 bags of sweets a week will have a lower life expectancy than a person who eats less than 3 bags of sweets a week

6

Give three characteristics of a hypothesis

- Clear
- Makes a PREDICTION
- Testable

7

What are the terms for a hypothesis made about there being a difference when the IV is changed?

- Alternative
- Experimental
- Research

8

What is the term for a hypothesis that states there will be no difference when the IV is changed?

Null hypothesis

9

What must you do regarding the hypotheses after the experiment?

State whether alternative/experimental/research or null was right

10

Define directional hypothesis?

Hypothesis that states the sort of difference anticipated between two groups/ conditions

(1 tailed)

11

Define non-directional hypothesis?

A hypothesis that states there is a difference between two groups/ conditions, but doesn’t state what the difference will be

(2 tailed)

12

When would you use a directional hypothesis?

When previous studies suggest a certain outcome

13

When would you use a non-directional hypothesis?

When there are no/ no conclusive previous studies

14

Define experimental method?

Manipulating an independent variable to measure affect on a dependent variable

15

Define independent variable (IV)?

The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher.

16

Define dependent variable (DV)?

The variable that is measured to show the affect of the IV.

17

Define operationalisation?

Clearly defining variables (in a hypothesis) in terms of how they can be measured

18

Name and define the two types of experimental conditions?

- Control group/condition (doesn’t experience change of independent variable, acting as a baseline for comparison)

- Experimental group/condition (experiences change of independent variable)

19

Define extraneous variables?

Nuisance variables that do not vary with the IV but may have the potential to affect the DV, so some may be controlled by the researcher.

20

Define confounding variables?

Variables that vary systematically with the IV, so will alter the DV and must be controlled by the researcher.
When a variable HAS AFFECTED the DV it is said to have ‘confounded’ the results

21

Name 4 types of control in experiments?

- Randomisation (v)
- Standardisation (v)
- Random allocation (p)
- Counterbalancing (p)

22

Define demand characteristics?

Any cue from the researcher/research situation that may reveal the purpose of the study and cause participants to alter their behaviour accordingly

23

Define investigator effects?

Any effects of the investigator’s unconscious/conscious behaviour on the DV

24

Define randomisation?

Use of chance when designing experiments to reduce the likelihood of bias

25

Define standardisation?

Using the exact same formalised procedures and instructions for all participants of the study to reduce bias

26

Define single blind trial?

Participant doesn’t know purpose of study (reduces demand characteristics)

27

Define double blind trial?

Participant and investigator don’t know purpose of the study (reduces chances of demand characteristics + investigator effects)

28

Define random allocation?

Randomly allocating participants to each experimental condition (equal chance to get picked for each condition)

- Reduces chance of individual differences in independent groups method

29

Define counterbalancing?

Changing order that participants experience conditions (ABBA)

- Reduces chance of order effects for repeated measures method

30

Define order effects?

Effects that arise when participants experience more than 1 condition.
- May cause better 2nd performance due to practice
- May cause worse 2nd performance due to fatigue/ boredom
(Can be reduced using counterbalancing)