4.2.3 - Research Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.2.3 - Research Methods Deck (113)
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1

Define observation?

Psychologists watch and listen to participants’ observable behaviour (the DV)

2

Define naturalistic observations?

Watching + recording behaviour in setting it would usually occur

3

2 benefits of naturalistic observations?

- High external validity
- High generalisability

(Due to behaviour in normal setting)

4

2 problems with naturalistic observations?

- Lower internal validity
- Low repeatability

(Due to no control of EVs/CVs)

5

Example of naturalistic observations?

Observing childrens’ behaviour in a school

6

Define controlled observations?

Watching + recording behaviour in a structured environment with some variable control

7

2 positives of controlled observations?

- High internal validity
- High repeatability

(Due to control of EVs and CVs)

8

Example of controlled observations?

Lab experiments using observation to measure DV

9

Define covert observations?

Participants’ behaviour watched + recorded WITHOUT their knowledge/ consent

10

1 positive and 1 negative of covert observations?

P = less participant reactivity to demand characteristics
N = unethical (no informed consent or privacy)

11

Define overt observations?

Participants’ behaviour watched + recorded WITH their knowledge + consent

12

1 positive and 1 negative of overt observations?

P = ethical
N = more demand characteristics causing participant reactivity

13

Example of covert observations?

2 way mirror

14

Example of overt observations?

Lab experiment using consent form

15

Define participant observation?

Researcher becomes member of group he/ she is observing

16

Example of participant observation?

Zimbardo in SPE (acted as lead researcher + prison superintendent)

17

1 positive and 1 negative of participant observation?

P = High validity (due to increased insight)
N = Researcher can lose objectivity (go native)

18

What is ‘going native’?

Researcher in participant observation blurs line between researcher and participant role

19

Define non-participant observation?

Researcher remains outside group he/ she is observing

20

Example of non-participant observation?

Female researcher can’t join the group of Yr 10 boy participants, so observes from outside perspective

21

1 positive and 1 negative of non-participant observation?

P = Researcher remains objective
N = Loss of valuable inside insight

22

Title and date of Rosenhan’s study?

- ‘On being sane in insane places’
- 1973

23

What type of observation was Rosenhan’s study?

- Naturalistic
- Covert
- Participant

24

Briefly outline events of Rosenhan’s study

- 8 pseudo-patients presented themselves at diff US psych institutions hearing ‘voices’
- All but one diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission
- Once inside stopped claiming symptoms + started observing
- Staff began classifying normal behaviour as symptomatic

25

What did Rosenhan’s study show?

The influence of environment on mental diagnosis (can cause misdiagnosis)

26

What is qualitative data?

Data that is expressed in words

27

What is quantitative data?

Data that is expressed numerically

28

Give 3 examples of qualitative data

- Transcript from interview
- Notes from counselling session
- Notes from observational study

29

Give 2 positives of qualitative data

- Greater detail
- Greater external validity (data explained, so can be related to real life)

30

Give 2 negatives of qualitative data

- Hard to analyse and compare data
- Conclusions are subjective (open to researcher bias)