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Flashcards in Msk Deck (57)
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1
Q

Normal elbow carrying angle?

Increased in ?

A

5-10 degrees

Turners syndrome

2
Q

Foot features of rheumatoid arthritis

A

Hallux/ hindfoot valgus
Toe crowding
Flattened arches

3
Q

Causes of inability to fully extend elbow

A

Synovitis, osteoarthritis , trauma , soft tissue conditions

4
Q

Finger findings of rheumatoid arthritis

A

Ulnar deviation of phalanges and MCP joints

Z deformity of thumb

5
Q

Causes of sausage shaped fingers

A

Psoriatic arthritis

Also present in Reiters disease

6
Q

Nail deformities in psoriasis

A

Pitting, onycholysis, hyper keratosis, ridging, discolouration

7
Q

Where is the scar from a hip replacement

A

Lateral aspect

8
Q

Dislocated hip held how?

A

Adducted and flexed

9
Q

Fractured neck of femur held how ?

A

Leg shortened and externally rotated

10
Q

Most comfortable way to hold painful hip with synovitis

A

Slight flexion, abduction and external rotation

11
Q

What is apparent leg length

Causes of discrepancies

A

Umbilicus to medial malleolus

True shortening or tilting of pelvis

12
Q

What is trendelenburgs test for?
How is it done?
What happens in a positive test? Cause?

A

Tests hip abductees
Ask the patient to stand on one leg
Non weight bearing side sags (instead of rises)
L5 lesion, proximal myopathy, hip joint disease

13
Q

What is indicated if sideways flexion is more limited than forward

A

Ankylosing spond

14
Q

Difficulty walking on toes

Difficulty walking on heals

A

S1 lesion

L4/5

15
Q

Weak quadriceps suggests

A

L4 root damage

16
Q

Weakness of muscles of foot an ankle suggest

A

L5 root damage

17
Q

Weakness of calf suggest

A

S1 root damage

18
Q

Loss of lumbar lordosis characteristic of

A

Ankylosing spond

19
Q

Side effects of steroids

A
BECLOMETHASONE
Buffalo hump
Easy bruising
Cataracts
Larger appetite
Obesity
Moon face
Euphoria
Thin arms and legs
Hypertension, hyperglycaemia
A vascular necrosis of femoral head
Skin thinning
Osteoporosis 
Negative nitrogen balance
Emotional liability
20
Q

Rheumatic fever criteria

A
Major JONES 
Joints (migratory) 
O (heart shaped) carditis (murmur)
Nodules - subcutaneous on extensor surfaces 
Erythema marginatum (pink rings on trunk and inner surface of limbs) 
Sydenham's chorea (uncoordinated jerking affecting face hands and feet) 
Minor PEACE 
PR interval (prolonged)
ESR elevated 
Arthralgia 
CRP elevated 
Elevated temperature 

Need 2 major (or 1 and 2 minor) plus evidence of recent infection

21
Q

What is genu recurvatum

A

Knee hyperextension

22
Q

What do cafe au lait spots suggest

A

Neurofibromatosis

23
Q

Sacral dimple with hairy patch may indicate

A

Spina bifida occulta

24
Q

What is spondylolisthesis

How is it felt

A

Forward displacement of vertebrae usually after a fracture

Palpable step

25
Q

Eg of cause of tenderness over sacroiliac joints

A

Ankylosing spond

26
Q

Test used to give a quantitative measure or lumbar spine flexion

A

Schobers test

Draw lines

27
Q

Femoral nerve roots

A

L2-4

28
Q

Pitting / nail ridges seen in

A

Psoriasis

29
Q

Onycholysis seen in

A

Psoriasis, fungal nail, hyperthyroidism

30
Q

What is onychogryphosis ?

Seen in?

A

Hypertrophic nails that resemble claws

Post traumatic, peripheral vascular disease

31
Q

What is sclerodactyly

A

Thickening and tethering of skin over fingers

32
Q

What is dactylitis ?

Seen in ?

A

Sausage fingers

Psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spond, IBD

33
Q

What is a boutonnière deformity

A

First joint bent towards palm and last away

34
Q

When do you see squaring of 1st carpalmetacarpal joint?

A

Osteoarthritis

35
Q

What nerve supply’s sensation to the anatomical snuff box

A

Radial

36
Q

What does increased stepping height indicate

A

Foot drop

37
Q

Pelvic tilt indicates

A

Hip abductor weakness

38
Q

Causes of popliteal swellings

A

Bakers cyst

Popliteal aneurysm

39
Q

To finish gals

A

Perfom focused examination joints with suspected pathology

40
Q

Associations with dupuytrens

A

Familial, T2DM, liver cirrhosis

41
Q

Finger abduction done by

A

Ulnar

42
Q

Wrist / finger extension

A

Radial nerve

43
Q

Thumb abduction

A

Median nerve

44
Q

Things to finish a knee exam

A

Neuro vascular examination of lower limbs
Examine the joint above and below
Request further imaging if suspected X-ray / MRI

45
Q

Putting hands behind head tests

A

External rotation

46
Q

Pitting hands up back tests

A

Internal rotation

47
Q

Pain on resisted external rotation suggests

A

Infraspinatus, teres minor tendonitis / torn

48
Q

Abduct shoulder from neutral position pain

A

Supraspinatus

49
Q

Painful arc indicates

A

Supraspinatus

50
Q

Lift off test is for

A

Subscapularis

51
Q

To finish shoulder exam

A

Perform full neuro vascular exam
Examine spine and elbow
Request further imaging if required X-ray / MRI

52
Q

Apparent vs true leg length

A

Apparent - umbilicus to medial maleolus

True - ASIS to medial maleolus

53
Q

Causes of hyper lumbar lordosis

A

Obesity

Tight lower back muscles

54
Q

Abnormal hair growth on back

A

Spina bifida

55
Q

Sciatic stretch test- positive results suggests

A

Sciatic nerve root impingement

56
Q

Usual cause of sciatic nerve root impingement

A

Prolapsed disk

57
Q

Finish spine exam

A

Full neuro vascular examination of all limbs
Take plain radiographs of spine if indicated
Perform further imaging if indicated MRI / CT