1 tablespoon = (mLs)
Diseases Associated with the effects of Aging
This is manifested by a withdrawal syndrome that occurs when blood levels of the drug are abruptly decreased
This is a condition characterized by aberrant behaviors arising from a drive to obtain and take substances for reasons other than the prescribed therapeutic value.
Which nursing intervention is most appropriate when preparing to administer an opioid analgesic agent?
Count the number of doses on hand before administration.
What is common for those with self concept deficits?
difficulty making decisions
When caring for an 87-year-old patient, the nurse needs to understand that which of the following most directly influences the patient’s current self-concept:
Adjustment to role change, loss of loved ones, and physical energy
A patient with a cardiac history is taking the diuretic furosemide (Lasix) and is seen in the emergency department for muscle weakness. Which laboratory value do you assess first?
What is a defining characteristics is consistent with fluid volume deficit?
Dry mucous membranes, thready pulse, tachycardia
Excessive or too-rapid infusion of 0.9% NaCl (normal saline) causes
- extracellular fluid volume (ECV)
- excess with pulmonary vessel congestion
- pulmonary edema
When is assessment of muscle strength important?
While receiving a blood transfusion, your patient develops chills, tachycardia, and flushing. What is your priority action?
Stop the transfusion
How do you calculate volume for ice chips
requires the integration of mental and muscular activity
A patient who is hospitalized has just been diagnosed with diabetes. He is going to need to learn how to give himself injections. Which teaching method does the nurse use?
Demonstration, to help w/ psychomotor skills
A nurse is teaching a 27-year-old gentleman how to adjust his insulin dosages based on his blood sugar results. What type of learning is this?
A postoperative patient is currently asleep. Therefore the nurse knows that:
The sedative administered may have helped him sleep, but assessment of pain is still needed.
Normal Value for Sodium
135 - 147 mEq/L
Normal Value for Potassium
3.5 - 5 mEq/L
Normal Value for Chloride
95 - 107 mEq/L
Glucose Value 2 hours after eating
Up to 140
A normal fasting (no food for eight hours) blood sugar level is
between 70 and 99 mg/dL
12.0 - 15.0
5,000 - 10,000
150,000 - 300,000
(150 - 350)
the most accurate method for determining fluid balance
the patients weight
6 Rights of Medication Administration
Patients Make Drugs Red To Death
- Right Patient
- Right Medication
- Right Dose
- Right Route
- Right Time
- Right Documentation
What should the flow meter setting be for a nasal cannula?
What should teh F102% be for a nasal cannula
24 - 44%
What should the flow meter setting be for a non-rebreather mask?
What percent should the F102 be for a non rebreather mask
What assessment should the nurse provide prior to oxygen administration? x5
- oxygen saturation
- sputum production
- auscultate lugs
- respiratory rate
- check dr order
- 2 identifiers
What are the 3 safety checks before administering a medication
- Check labael against order
- Verify label against MAR
- Check ID band against MAR
When do you deliver a PRN medication
when do you deliver a medication labeled "STAT"
When do you deliver a medication marked "now"
within the hour
When do you deliver a medication marked "on call"
as requested by OR
When do you deliver a medication marked A.C.
before a meal (think AM)
When do you deliver a medication marked P.C.
after a meal
How do you deliver an oral sublingual medication?
under the tongue
How do you deliver an oral buccal medication
in contact with mucous membranes of the cheek
Nurse assessments prior to delivering an inhaled medication
- Respiration and breath sounds
- Ask patient about subjective symptoms
- Explain procedure to the patient
What is the length of time between inhalation of the same medications
The length of time to wait before administering different inhaled medications
challenges for caregivers of family members suffering from chronic illnesses x5
lack of Education
lack of Respite
conflict of decisions
lack of Education
lack of Respite
conflict of decisions
What are 4 examples of Chronic Illness
Name 4 examples of an acute illness?
Name 3 types of Disabilities
- Body System
- Acquired (after your born)
Signs (AEB) Hyperkalemia
- Muscle weakness
- Urine, oliguria, anuria
- Respiratory distress
- Decreased cardiac contractility
- EKG Changes, Peaked T Waves
- Reflexes, hyper, or hypo
Signs (AEB) Hypokalemia
- Lethat cardiac arrhthymia
- Leg cramps
- Limp Muscles
- Low, shallow respirations
- Less stool (constipation)
Signs (AEB) of Hypernatremia
- Increase BP
- Decreased Urinary Output
What approach to take educating an older adult? x11
- learner maximum control
- slow pace
- be aware of attention span
- avoid distractions/environmental
- involve family & caretakers
- Sensory deprivation (large print)
- Allow time to process
- write instructions
Clinical Manifestations for Hypervolemia?
- Pulse is bounding JVD
- High BP
- headache, confusion, muscle spasms
- Anorexia, weight gain, ascites
- peripheral edema
Clinical Manifestations of Hypocalcemia
Think Sodium think..
Think Potassium think....
Vital Signs for Hypernatremia?
- Orthostatic hypotension
Clinical Manifestations of Hypermagnesia
Opposite of HYPER
- depressed reflexes
- respiratory depression
- sleepy "somnolence"
Clinical Manifestations of Hypomagnesia
OPPOSITE of HYPO
- Increase nerve impulse
- deep tendon reflex
The average person should have how much urine output per hour?
- 30mL per hour ***
How do you replace potassium (hypokalemia)?
- Never IV Push
- Monitor I/O
- Potatoes, Avocado, Banana
Reasons for hypovolemia
- ng drainage,
- burns (3rd spacing),
- shift of plasma into interstitial spaces,
- ascites (abdomen)
Acute pain is directly related to...
What type of symptoms are associated with acute pain
sympathetic nervous system responses
this type of pain is highly resistant to treatment
intractable pain (chronic)
pain associated with deep internal pain receptors?
Pain in the bones, joints or muscles
Pain identified as hot, stabbing, shooting, or numbing. Associated with damage to peripheral nerve or CNS
This type of pain can be described as referred and spreading
Pain perceived from a tissue that has been surgically removed
Diagnostics Tests for Pneumonia
- chest xray
- blood test
- pulse oximetry
- sputum test
What is the phys assessment prior to meds? x7
- vital signs
- ability to swallow- gag reflex
- GI motility
- Muscle mass
- Venous Access
- Body sys assessment
- right to refuse
What are examples of nursing diagnoses related to med admin
anxiety, deficity of knowledge, impaired mobility, impaired swallowing, fall risk
What are basic rules for administering medication x9
- prep for ONE patient at a time
- compare order with me davailable
- calc drug dose
- Verify order
- Check if it seems excessive
- take meds directly to the patient
- Check 2 patient identifiers
- complete required assessent prior to giving
- DO NOT LEAVE at bedside, stay until that complete
Is 25 gauge bigger or smaller than a 16 gauge needle
Normal Phys changes with aging
- body composition
- body cells less able to replace themselves
- reduces lean body mass
- loss of subq fat
- body shrinkage due to loss of cartilage
- body fat atrophy (sagging)
- hard to maintain body temp
- increas risk of dehydration, decrease intracellular fluid
Fluid Volume Excess
- Bounding Pulse
- ansarca (gen edema)
- labs all decrease
Gen survey assessment
- make sure the patient is safe when they leave the hospital
- living conditions
- safe environment
Examples of Body System Disabilities
- Spina Bifida
Examples of Developmental Disabilities
Cerebral Palsey, Down Syndrome
Emotional Aspect, hospice
measurement used to assess pain for children between the ages of 2 months and 7 years or individuals that are unable to communicate their pain.
Signs of Hyponatremia
- Tendon Reflexes Decreased
- Limp Muscles
- Orthostatic Hypotenion
- Stomach Cramping
a condition marked by intermittent muscular spasms, caused by malfunction of the parathyroid glands and a consequent deficiency of calcium.
What directions to solutes diffuse?
high to low
What direction does osmosis move?
towards higher concentration
Hypoxia Signs & Symptoms
- Extreme Restlessness
Magnesium food containing products
- peanut butter
3 safety concerns with a patient on oxygen