Exam 4: NR414 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4: NR414 Deck (136):
1

Objective Findings for Osteoarthritis

  • Limited ROM in the affected joint
  • fluid iseasily moved around the joint space
  •  

2

3 areas of the Glasgow Coma Scale

  1. eye opening
  2. motor response to stimuli
  3. verbal response

2

higher motor system that permits very skilled and purposeful movements such as writing.

corticospinal tract.

2

A murmur heard after S1 and before S2 is classified as

systolic (possibly benign)

3

During a visit for a school physical the 13 year old questions the asymmetry of her breasts. What is your best response?

 

"One breast may grow faster than the other during development"

4

During assessment of the spine, what do you ask the patient?

  • Flex
  • Extend
  • Abduct
  • Rotate

4

During examination of the breasts of a pregnant woman, what are the expected findings?

A blue vascular pattern over both breasts

5

moving a limb away from the midline of the body

Abduction

6

Melena

really dark stools b/c of blood

7

fibrous bands running directly from one bone to another.

ligaments

7

a partial or incomplete paralysis

paresis

7

an abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling.

parastesia

8

What is the sequence used during examination of the abdomen?

  • Inspect
  • Auscultate
  • Percuss
  • Palpate

9

all ascending and descending fiber tracts; it has vital autonomic centers for respiration, heart, and gastrointestinal function as well as nuclei for cranial nerves VIII through XII.

Medulla

10

What would cause a false positive fecal occult test?

red meat

11

When is the bulbourethral gland assessed

 

exam of a male patient

12

What does a “normal” tympanic membrane look like?

Shiny, translucent, pearly grey

13

a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D.

osteoporosis

14

Bundles of muscle fibers that compose skeletal muscle are identified as:

fasciculi

14

the landau reflex in an infant is seen when

the baby raises the head and arches the back as in a swan dive

14

Automatic associated movements of the body are under the control and regulation of:

basal ganglia

14

When do we start Colorectal Exam?

  • 50, every 5-10 years
    • colostomy
    • ocult blood test

14

What 4 areas do you auscultate when listening to the heart?

  • Aortic, Pulmonic, Tricuspid, Mitral

15

What is the time frame for full breast development?

1.5 - 6 years

16

Average age for breast development in african americans?

8 to 9 years

16

A 78 year old male comes into the office and the nurse assesses that he has a greying/white arc/circle around his cornea with no vision loss. She should conclude that the patient has:

Arcus Senillis

17

describe the anal canal

  • 3.8 cm long long outlet of the GI tract

18

skin normal findings seen mostly in infants? x3

  1. Cafe Au Lait Spot
  2. Mongolian Spot
  3. Lanugo

19

Describe the Left Lung

  • narrower than the right w/ 2 lobes

20

A positive babinski sign is

dorsifelxion of the big toe and fanning of all toes

20

Each half of the cerebrum is a

hemisphere

21

a person hears and comprehends words but is unable to speak correctly; incoherent words are substituted for intended words.

paraphasia

21

Older Adult Expected Finding During Breast Exam

  • lactiferous ducts are more palpable
  • feel firm and stringy b/c of fibrosis and calcification.

21

How common is prostate cancer

1/6

22

The test where you place a coin on a person's hand and ask him or her to indentify it

 

stereognosis

22

How do we detect Prostate Cancer early?

  • Blood for prostate specific antigen (PSA)
  • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

23

style of speech for a person with parkinsons

slow monotonous

24

How do you examine the trigeminal nerve in an infant

offer the baby a bottle

24


The best exercises to maintain bone health are

Weight bearing exercises

25

Straightening a limb at a joint

extension

26

Normal stool characteristics

Softs, brown, BM daily

27

An area of the body that is supplied mainly from one spinal segment through a particular spinal nerve is identified as a:

dermatone

28

When is a baseline mammogram recommened for women?

Between 35 and 39 yrs

29

The knee joint is the articulation of three bones, the:

  1. femur,
  2. tibia
  3. patella.

29

slow, writhing, continuous, and involuntary movements of the extremities.

Athetosis

30

When is the best time to perform a breast self examination?

on the 4th - 7th day of the cycle

32

occurs with diabetes, epilepsy, and alcoholic liver disease. Chronic hyperplasia of the palmar fascia causes flexion contractures of the digits.

Dupuytren contracture

33

Turning the forearm so the palm is up

supination

34

Clonus that may be seen when testing deep tendon reflexes is characterized by a(n):

  • a set of rapid, rhythmic contractions of the same muscle.

36

Swan-neck, boutonnière deformity, and ulnar deviation are conditions associated with

rheumatoid arthritis

38

Anterior and Posterior Stability are provided to the knee joint by the

  • anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments

40

Turning the forearm so the palm is out

 

Pronation

41

n impaired ability to coordinate movement, often characterized by a staggering gait and postural imbalance.

ataxia

42

Where is the most common site for breast tumors

upper outer quadrant

42

What is a symptom of internal hemorroids?

 

frequent constipation, rectal bleeding and pain. No mass at anal opening

43

An expected postmenopausal breast change includes:

  1. glandular tissue atrophy.
  2. increased fibrous connective tissue.
  3. fat tissue atrophy.
  4. Decrease Breast Size

44

Subjective Data for Osteoarthritis

  • Pain (worse later in the day)
  • stiffness
  • reported limited ROM

46

Crepitation is an audible sound that is produced by:

roughened articular surfaces moving over each other

47

What is a findiing that indicated prostate cancer in the prostate gland?

 

diffuse hardness

48

Which of the following options is not a change that comes with menopause?

  • The vaginal pH becomes more alkalotic

  • The vagina becomes shorter and narrower

  • The cervix shrinks

  • The ovaries hypertrophy

49

localized uncoordinated, uncontrollable twitching of a single muscle group innervated by a single motor nerve fiber or filament.

Fasciculation

50

How do you elicit Babinski Reflex

stroke the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot from heel to the ball

51

A known risk factor for breast cancer includes:

Early Menarche, or Late Menopause (after 55)

53

During neurologic examination the tendon reflex fails to appear. Before striking the tendon again, the examiner might use what type of technique?

reinforcement

55

strong fibrous cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones.

tendons

56

which cultural group has the lowest incidence of osteoporosis?

African Americans

56

Broca Means

difficulty speaking

56

Cranial Nerve Mneumonic Sensory, Motor or Both

  • Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Bad Business Marry Money

57

Cranial Nerve Mneumonic

Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet AH!

  • Olfactoryoptic
  • Oculomotor
  • Trochlear
  • Trigeminal
  • Abducens
  • Facial
  • Vestibulocochlear
  • Glossopharyngeal
  • Vagus
  • Accessory
  • Hypoglossal

58

The number of lobes within the breast ranges between:

15 and 20

59

Malignant Breast Lump Characteristics

  1. Irregular Shape
  2. Tenderness

59

Why are children more at risk for ear infections?

They have shorter, wider, more horizontal Eustachian tubes

60

Define Supernumary nipple

A normal and common variation. An extra nipple on the thorax or abdomen. It is usually 5 to 6 cm below the breast near the midline and has no glandular tissue.

61

The production of red blood cells in the bone marrow is called:

hematopoiesis.

61

What is a gynecomastia

  • enlargement of the male breast, due to hormone imbalance or hormone therapy.
  • liver cirrhosis.

63

s a feature of the nerve tracts; the left cerebral cortex receives sensory information from and controls motor function to the right side of body, whereas the right cerebral cortex likewise interacts with the left side of the body.

Crossed Represenation

63

What is steatorhhea

 

frothy, foul smelling stools that float at the surface

64

Rectum is how long

12 cm. most distal portion of lg intestine

66

What assessments should be performed last on a 4-week-old infant?

Otoscopic examination of the tympanic membrane

67

moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle

inversion

68

To assess for a spinal curvature

  • the person will bend over and touch the toes with the knee in extension

69

Influences Body Temperature

Diurnal Cycle

70

when is a cremasteric response positive?

when the ipsilateral testicle elevates upon stroking of the inner aspect of the thigh

71


The group of axillary lymph nodes that drains the other three groups of nodes is the:
 

Central Nodes

72

A newborn’s nail beds may be blue (cyanotic) for the first few hours of life, then they turn what color?

pink

74

the cutaneous distribution of the various spinal nerves.

Dermal segmentation

75

Positive Phalen Test and Tinel Signs are indicative of?

carpal tunnel syndrome

75

Superficial reflexes include

  • abdominal,
  • cremasteric,
  • plantar (or Babinski) reflexes.

76

control of body temperature

hypothalamus

78

Muscle extension can be assessed by

  • instructing the person to rise from a squatting position without using the hands for support.

80

What is the cause of a neonate with large breasts, secreting clear/white fluid?

maternal estrogen, which crossed the placenta

82

Name the reservoirs for storing milk in the breasts?

Lactiferous Sinuses

83

The musculoskeletal system functions include:

  • provide support to stand erect
  • allow movement; to encase and protect the inner vital organs
  • produce RBCS in the bone marrow
  • reservoir for storage of essential minerals

84

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is highest in this group?

African americans

85

Striae which occur when elastic fibers in the reticular layers of the skin are broken after rapid or prolonged stretching, have a distinct color when of long duration. What is this color?

Silvery White

87

s where sensory pathways of the spinal cord, cerebellum, and brain stem form synapses on their way to the cerebral cortex.

thalamus

88

Moving the body part forward and parallel to the ground

 

protraction

89

The extrapyramidal system is located in the:

basal ganglia.

90

Bending a limb at a joint

flexion

91

What is a symptom of a benign prostatic hypertrophy

difficulty urinating and weak stream

92

Which cranial nerves control the extraocular muscles (EOM)?

  • Oculomotor (II),
  • Abducens (VI),
  • Trochlear (IV)

94

Testing the deep tendon reflexes gives the examiner information regarding the intactness of the:

reflex arc at specific levels in the spinal cord

96

Pronation and supination of the hand and forearm are hte result of the articulation of the

  • Radius
  • Ulna

97

A patient comes into the ER reporting he is in pain, what factors are related to pain

  • guarding
  • diaphoresis
  • increased heart rate
  • change in appetitie

98

Assessments for EOM

  1. Corneal Light Reflex
  2. 6 Cardinal Positions
  3. Confrontation Test
  4. CN 3,4,6

99

degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone, most common from middle age onward. It causes pain and stiffness, especially in the hip, knee, and thumb joints.

Osteoarthritis

100

he relative proportion of glandular, fibrous, and fatty tissue depends on...x5

  • age,
  • cycle
  • pregnancy
  • lactation
  • nutritional state.

101

Cerebellar function is assesed by which of the following tests?

coordination, hop on one foot

102

moving the arm in a circle around the shoulder

circumduction

104

During the examination of an infant, use a cotton tipped applicator to stimulate the anal sphincter. The absence of a response suggests a lesion of

S2

105

When assessing the abdomen, what position do you put the patient?

Supine with knees flexed

107

Superficial reflexes test

  • the sensory receptor in the skin;
  • motor response is a localized muscle contraction

108

moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground

retraction

109

Which of the following vital signs are characteristic of an aging adult?

  1. Decreased temperature
  2. Decreased sweating
  3. Increased risk of orthostatic hypotension

110

What is the best position for inspecting the breasts for retraction?

Sitting with hand pushing onto hips

112

the sense of balance.

Vestibular function

114

characterized by hard, nontender nodules, 2 to 3 mm or more

Osteoarthritis

116

To assess range of motion

the leg should be abducted and adducted with the knee extended.

117

An ER nurse is assessing a female patient who has a blunt injury to the chest wall, what would be a sign of pneumothorax

diminished breath sounds

119

Define the Romberg Test

  •  A positive Romberg sign is loss of balance that occurs when closing the eyes
  • occurs with cerebellar ataxia, loss of proprioception, and loss of vestibular function.

120

An Area not commonly associated with pain

inramuscular

121

The presence of primitive reflexes in a newborn infant is indicative of:

immaturity of the nervous system.

122

moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle

 

eversion

123

Often seen with history of trauma or obesity, and can be genetic

osteoarthritis

124

Average Age for breast development in Caucasians?

10 years

125

Nutrition to reduce risk of colon cancer

high fiber

127

What is the gastrocolic Reflex

 

a peristaltic wave

128

Benign Breast Characteristics

  1. Soft
  2. Well Defined Margins
  3. Freely moveable

129

in the temporal lobe is associated with language comprehension

Wernicke's Area

130


How long does Breast development precede after menstruation?
 

2 years

131

How often should males 15 y/o+ do a testicular self exam?

Once a month

132

The divisions of the spinal vertebrae include:

  • Cervical,
  • thoracic,
  • lumbar,
  • sacral,
  • coccygeal.

133

The nurse assess a patient with osteoarthritis, what would be an expected sign/symptom?

  • stiff knees, hips, fingers, and vertebrae

134

weak, soft, and flabby; lacking normal muscle tone.

flaccidity

135

When testing for muscle strength, the examiner should:

  • apply an opposing force when the individual puts a joint in flexion or extension.

136

How often should a women age 40-49 get a mammogram?

Every Year