# Chapter 2: Concepts of Construction Flashcards

1
Q
```The wall the typically has the highest fire rating and is the strongest within the building is a:
B. fire wall
C. curtain wall
D. panel wall```
A

B. fire wall

2
Q
```The type of connection that allows the weight of the building to hold them in place is a:
A. wet joint
B. gusset connection
C. gravity connection
D. grillage```
A

C. gravity connection

3
Q
```There are numerous types of beams; the type tht is supported at three or more points is a /an \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ beam.
A. continuous
B. cantilever
C. simple
D. overhanging```
A

A. continuous

4
Q
```The line along a beam that does not change is the \_\_\_\_\_\_\_ or plane.
A. vertical axis
B. horizontal axis
C. stiffness axis
D. neutral axis```
A

D. neutral axis

5
Q

The most effective shape for a column is one that:
A. distributes the material equally around the axis as far as possible from the center of the cylinder
B. distributes the material equally around the axis as close as possible to the center of the cylinder.
C. distributes the material equally around the axis as far as possible from the edge of the cylinder
D. distributes the material equally around the axis as close as possible to the edge of the cylinder..

A

A. distributes the material equally around the axis as far as possible from the center of the cylinder

6
Q
```A structural member that transmits a compressive force along a straight path in the direction of the member is called a:
A. column
B. beam
C. floor joist
D. strut```
A

A. column

7
Q
```The \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ of a beam is the result of force exerted by a beam on a support.
B. reaction
C. release rate
D. compression```
A

B. reaction

8
Q
```A \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ wall acts as one unit.
A. homogenous
B. stable
C. voussoir
D. ledgered```
A

A. homogenous

9
Q
```Steel heated to 1000 degrees F elongates \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ per 100 feet of length.
A. 7 inches
B. 8 inches
C. 9 inches
D. 10 inches```
A

C. 9 inches

10
Q
```Which of the following are commonly used in heavy timber buildings?
A. Lightweight trusses
B. Fire-cut joists
C. Curtain walls
D. Self-releasing floors```
A

D. Self-releasing floors

11
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

A/An __________ is made by sandwiching a piece of steel between two wooden beams.

A

Glitch plate girder

12
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

The combination of two different materials in a floor is called a/an ________ floor.

A

composite

13
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

Externally braced buildings are known as ___________.

A

tube construction

14
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

The rate of available energy released is the ____________.

A

heat release rate

15
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

When changes are made in the foundation of an existing wall, it may e necessary to insert a/an ___________.

A

needle beam

16
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

A/An _________ is probably the oldest structural member.

A

beam

17
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

Struts or rakers are other names for _______ columns.

A

nonvertical

18
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

A/An ___________ beam moves loads laterally when it is not convenient to arrange columns in an ideal way.

A

transfer

19
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK

It is important to know how loads are _________ from the point of application to the ground.

A

transmitted

20
Q

FILL IN THE BLANK
Some steel buildings have connections that redirect overloads to other sections of the building; this is known as a/an ________ design.

A

plastic

21
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

Vierendeel trusses are square trusses with weak corner bracings

A

False

22
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

An axial load is a force that passes through the centroid of the section under consideration.

A

True

23
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

The best way to rate a building component is based on its ultimate strength.

A

False

24
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

Prefire plans should note the estimated fire load.

A

True

25
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

A typical sofa has a peak HRR of 1500 kW.

A

False

26
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

A steel beam resting on a masonry wall is an example of a concentrated load.

A

True

27
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

Suspended loads depend on interior columns of support.

A

False

28
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

The universal spacing for sawn wooden beams in ordinary construction is 12 inches.

A

False

29
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

A theater marquee is an example of a cantilever beam.

A

False

Suspended Beam

30
Q

TRUE OR FALSE

Steel beams are typically I-shaped.

A

True

31
Q

What is the difference between panel (or curtain) walls and party walls?

A

Panel walls (also called curtain walls) are non-load-bearing walls; party walls, however, are load bearing walls

32
Q

What are the two general types of connections?

A

Pinned (when the elements are connected by simple connectors such as bolts, rivets, or welded joints) and rigid-framed (when the connections are strong enough to reroute if a member is removed).

33
Q

How can a connection fail?

A

Any of the following:

• Masonry walls shift outward, dropping joists
• Steel connectors can rust, eventually falling
• Concrete can disintegrate into serious failure
• Temporary field bolting can give way in high winds
• Loads can shift, causing a break in the connector
34
Q

Name three methods of wall bracing.

A

Any three of the following:

• Buttresses
• Cavity or hollow walls
• Pilasters
• Wall Columns
35
Q

What are Eular’s Law columns?

A

Very long, thin columns

36
Q

What is a wedge-shaped block whose converging sides radiate from the center forming an element of an arch or vaulted ceiling?

A

voussoir

37
Q

What are bricks designed to join wyths?

A

38
Q

What is in place when a mass of masonry is placed against a wall to strengthen it?

A

buttresses

39
Q

What braces a column diagonally?

A

raker

40
Q

What is a masonry column, built on the inside surface of a wall?

A

pilaster

41
Q

What is the outside member of a truss, as opposed to the inner webbed members?

A

chord

42
Q

What is it called when the end of joist is cut off at an ange to permit the joist to fall out of the wall without damaging the wall?

A

fire cut

43
Q

What is a truss that has a very rigid corner bracing?

A

vierendeel

44
Q

What is a beam and a column combined into a single element?

A

arch

45
Q

What is a wall that divides tenant spaces?

A

demising

46
Q
```1:  Which term should be used upon arriving at a scene and finding that fire is affecting the gravity resistance of a building?
A: Building fire
B: Structure fire
C: House fire
D: Dwelling fire```
A

B: Structure fire

47
Q
```2:  What kind of force is a twisting force?
A: Tension
B: Torsion
C: Compression
D: Stress```
A

B: Torsion

48
Q
```3:  Which type of load consists of the weight of the building itself and any equipment permanently attached or built in?
A: Live
B: Concentrated
D: Lateral```
A

49
Q
```4:  Which type of material is used in old timber buildings that are being restored and have overloaded beams?
A: Reinforced concrete
B: Heavy timbers
C: Steel joists
D: Tie rods```
A

D: Tie rods

50
Q
```5:  A cotton mattress will have a peak HRR of?
A: 1.5 - 3 pounds
B: 2.6 - 31 pounds
C: 26 - 29 pounds
D: 27 - 61 pounds```
A

C: 26 - 29 pounds

51
Q
```6:  Which of the following is considered the oldest structural member?
A: Beam
B: Chord
C: Web
D: Column```
A

A: Beam

52
Q
```7:  Which type of structural member transmits a compressive force along a straight path in the direction of the member?
A: Beam
B: Chord
C: Web
D: Column```
A

D: Column

53
Q
```8:  Large wooden columns, which are almost always ornamental as well as structural, are \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_.
A: solid
B: hollow
D: unyielding```
A

B: hollow

54
Q
```9:  Which type of frame is derived from the arch?
A: Shell
B: Solid
C: Rigid
D: Stiff```
A

C: Rigid

55
Q
```10:  Ultimately, where are all loads delivered?
B: Roof structure
C: Floor
D: Foundation```
A

D: Foundation

56
Q

A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

F. The weight of the building

57
Q

Define ‘Compression’:
A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member

58
Q

Define ‘Tension’:
A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body

59
Q

Define ‘Torsion’:
A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

A. A twisting force

60
Q

Define ‘Stress’:
A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load

61
Q

Define ‘Strain’:
A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed

62
Q

A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

63
Q

A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

G. The weight of a building’s contents

64
Q

A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section

65
Q

A. A twisting force
B. An internal force, measured in pounds per unit area, that resists a load
C. A direct pushing force, in line with the axis member
D. An internal force, percent of elongation that occurs when a material is stressed
E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction
F. The weight of the building
G. The weight of a building’s contents
H. A force that is perpendicular to the plane of a section but does not pass through the center of the section
I. A pulling or stretching force, in line with the axis of the body
J. A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface

A

E. A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction