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Flashcards in 4_Neurotransmitters Deck (23):
1

What are the two type of receptors for glutamate?

Ionotropic and metatropic

2

change (cellular activity -->lasting change) in physiology of a cell to influence enzymes leads to :

long lasting genetic change (2nd messenger system)

3

Receptor (generator) potential and postsynaptic potentials are both graded changes of membrane excitability that:

decay away from the site of stimulation

4

Membrane potential must be at some threshold level at the critical point of the axon (___________) that contains ________________.

(axon hillock)
the voltage-gated channels

5

If threshold depolarization is not achieved at this point :

no action potential is initiated

6

What are the two types of neurotransmitter mechanisms?

Ionotropic and metabotropic

7

receptors are located with actual ion channel =

ionotoropic

8

receptors are located at some point on the membrane but activate an ion channel some distance away via a second messenger system (g-protein coupled receptors):

metabotropic

9

Metabotropic receptors require some ____________________ that may be long acting via changes in enzyme/protein expression

internal cellular mechanism (proteins and enzymes)

10

Name 3 fast ionotropic excitatory neurotransmitters:

1) ACh
2) glutamate
3)epinephrine

11

Name 2 fast ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitters:

1) GABA
2) glycine

12

What are neuropeptides?

more complex AA petides from small to large; these are all metabotropic

13

Name 3 neuropeptides

1) enkephalin
2) calcium binding protein
3) substance P

14

What are 3 non-traditional neurotransmitters:

1)nitric oxide
2 & 3)eiconasoids - prostalgandins & cannabinoids)

15

What do non-traditional neurotransmitters do?

affect adjacent cells

16

What are neurotransmitters co-localized with?

Neuropeptides in axonal terminals

17

GABA has been found to be co-localized with:

various classes of calcium binding proteins that are specific to different structures/ regions of the brain

18

GABA co-localized with calbindin is in the:

frontal brain

19

GABA co-localized with parvalbumin is in the:

occipital lobe

20

Exact function of co-localization is not clear, but some indication is that the peptide acts as a neurotransmitter by __________________________, as well as prolonging membrane activity.

modifying the activity of the cell during neurotransmission

21

It is actually the post-synaptic receptor that _______________ (excitatory vs. inhibitory) of the neurotransmitter, i.e. what kind of ion channel is the receptor located on: Acetylcholine (nicotinic) with __________, GABA and glycine with_________.

determines the action
Na+ channels
Cl- channels.

22

True or False: While fast neurotransmitters are associated with ionotropic receptors, they also act on metabotropic receptors.

True

23

NOTE: There is some confusion in the text that implies that fast neurotransmitters are always associated with ionotropic receptors, yet the catecholamines act only through metabotropic receptors.

NOTE: There is some confusion in the text that implies that fast neurotransmitters are always associated with ionotropic receptors, yet the catecholamines act only through metabotropic receptors.