Flashcards in 4_Neurotransmitters Deck (23)
What are the two type of receptors for glutamate?
Ionotropic and metatropic
change (cellular activity -->lasting change) in physiology of a cell to influence enzymes leads to :
long lasting genetic change (2nd messenger system)
Receptor (generator) potential and postsynaptic potentials are both graded changes of membrane excitability that:
decay away from the site of stimulation
Membrane potential must be at some threshold level at the critical point of the axon (___________) that contains ________________.
the voltage-gated channels
If threshold depolarization is not achieved at this point :
no action potential is initiated
What are the two types of neurotransmitter mechanisms?
Ionotropic and metabotropic
receptors are located with actual ion channel =
receptors are located at some point on the membrane but activate an ion channel some distance away via a second messenger system (g-protein coupled receptors):
Metabotropic receptors require some ____________________ that may be long acting via changes in enzyme/protein expression
internal cellular mechanism (proteins and enzymes)
Name 3 fast ionotropic excitatory neurotransmitters:
Name 2 fast ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitters:
What are neuropeptides?
more complex AA petides from small to large; these are all metabotropic
Name 3 neuropeptides
2) calcium binding protein
3) substance P
What are 3 non-traditional neurotransmitters:
2 & 3)eiconasoids - prostalgandins & cannabinoids)
What do non-traditional neurotransmitters do?
affect adjacent cells
What are neurotransmitters co-localized with?
Neuropeptides in axonal terminals
GABA has been found to be co-localized with:
various classes of calcium binding proteins that are specific to different structures/ regions of the brain
GABA co-localized with calbindin is in the:
GABA co-localized with parvalbumin is in the:
Exact function of co-localization is not clear, but some indication is that the peptide acts as a neurotransmitter by __________________________, as well as prolonging membrane activity.
modifying the activity of the cell during neurotransmission
It is actually the post-synaptic receptor that _______________ (excitatory vs. inhibitory) of the neurotransmitter, i.e. what kind of ion channel is the receptor located on: Acetylcholine (nicotinic) with __________, GABA and glycine with_________.
determines the action
True or False: While fast neurotransmitters are associated with ionotropic receptors, they also act on metabotropic receptors.