Flashcards in 4th Six Weeks Deck (19):
A multifaceted process that began in Southern Asia and spread from there to various other places around the globe. The process included many interrelated strands of development. Southernization changed Southern Asia and later spread to other areas, which then underwent a process
Chinggis Khan/ Genghis Khan: Synopsis
Genghis Khan was born "Temujin" in Mongolia around 1162. He married at age 16, but had many wives during his lifetime. At 20, he began building a large army with the intent to destroy individual tribes in Northeast Asia and unite them under his rule. He was successful; the Mongol Empire was the largest empire in the world before the British Empire, and lasted well after his own death in 1227.
Kublai Khan: Synopsis
The grandson of Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan was the fifth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (1260-1294) and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He assumed the title emperor of China, and his conquest of South China’s Song Dynasty was the last step in the Mongols’ efforts to rule China wholly. With that conquest behind him, he became the overlord of all the Mongol dominions (the Golden Horde in southern Russia, the Il-Khanate of Persia and regions inhabited by traditionally nomadic Mongol princes), as well as the ruler of his own territory of China.
Chapter 14 Summary
The nomads of central Asia during the 13th and 14th centuries returned to center stage in world history. The Mongols ended or interrupted the great postclassical empires while extending the world network of that era. Led by Chinggis Khan and his successors, they brought central Asia, China, Persia, Tibet, Iraq, Asia Minor, and southern Russia under their control. The resulting states dominated most of Asia for one and a half centuries. The Mongol success was the most formidable nomadic challenge to the global dominance of the sedentary, civilized core civilizations since the 1st centuries C.E. The Mongols often are portrayed as barbarian, destructive conquerors, but their victories brought much more than death and destruction. Peoples lived in peace in the Mongol territories, and enjoyed religious toleration and a unified law code. The Mongol conquests expanded the world network in formation since the classical age.
Westernization refers to certain developments that first occurred in Western Europe. Those developments changed Europe and eventually spread to other places and changed them as well.
"Agents of change" or "an unstoppable ride or terror"- both definitions are right. Mongol forces invaded southern China and rode west all the way into Russia and Southwest Asia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. After brutal conquest, they established a Pax Mongolica: peace and trade throughout their territories.
The Black Death is probably history's most infamous disease. Historians believe it may have originated along the trade routes near the Black Sea. It spread east west during the age of the Mongol conquests, killing millions. For example, in the mid-fourteenth century, the Black Death wiped out as much as one-third of the population of western Europe.
The World Shrinks, 1450-1750
-1281: Founding of Ottoman dynasty
-1350s: Ottoman invasion of southeastern Europe
-1368: Ming dynasty in China
-1390: Ming restrictions on overseas trade
-1405-1433: Chinese expedition period
-1434-1498: Portuguese expeditions down West African coast
-1441: Beginning of European slave trade in Africa
-1453: Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
-1480: Moscow region free of Mongol control
-1492: Columbus expeditions
-1498-1499: Vasco da Gama expedition open seas to Asia
-1500-1600: Europe's commercial revolution
-1501-1510: Safavid conquest of Iran
-1509: Spanish colonies on American mainland
-1510-1511: Portugal conquers Goa (India), Malacca (Malaysia)
-1517-1541: Protestant Reformation (Europe)
-1519-1521: Magellan circumnavigates globe
-1519-1524: Cortes conquers Mexico
-1520-1566: Suleiman the Magnificent (Ottoman)
-1526: Babur conquest in northern India (Mughal)
-1533: Pizarro wins Peru
-1548: Portuguese government in Brazil
-1552: Russia begins expansion in central Asia and western Siberia
-1570: Portuguese colony of Angola (Africa)
-1571: Ottoman naval defeat at Lepanto
-1590: Hideyoshi unifies Japan
-1591: Fall of Songhay (Africa)
-1600: Dutch and British merchants begin activity in India
-1600-1690: Scientific revolution (Europe)
-1603: Tokugawa shogunate
-1607: First British colonies in North America
-1608: First French North American colonies
-1637: Russian pioneers to Pacific
-1640s: Japan isolation
-1641: Dutch colonies in Indonesia
-1642-1727: Isaac Newton
-1644: Qing dynasty, China
-1652: Dutch colony South Africa
-1658-1707: Aurangzeb reign, beginning of Mughal decline
-1682-1699: Turks driven from Hungary
-1689-1725: Peter the Great (Russia)
-1713: New Bourbon dynasty, Spain
-1722: Fall of Safavid dynasty (Iran)
-1759-1788: Reforms of Latin American colonial administration
-1756-1763: Seven Years' War
-1763: Britain acquires "New France"
-1764: British East India Company controls Bengal (India)
-1770s: European-Bantu conflicts in southern Africa
-1772-1795: Partition: of Poland
-1775-1783: American Revolution
-1781: Indian revolts in New Grenada and Peru (Latin America)
-1792: Slave uprising in Haiti
Seeking an increase in the trade of spices, silk, and other goods from East and Southeast Asia, kings from new European nations sent ships around Africa into the Indian Ocean and also across the Atlantic Ocean. Led by Portugal, then Spain, France, England, and Holland, these explorers initiated the first truly global contacts and ushered in the rise of European influence around the world.
Columbus's expeditions to the Americas triggered exchanges of plants, animals, technology, and diseases on a worldwide level. This term is a key definition in the global scope of AP World History.
The Atlantic World encompasses the people, politics, religions, goods, and ideas that crossed back and forth over the Atlantic after Columbus's journeys connected Europe, Africa, and North and South America. This term is especially important in the years c. 1450 - c. 1900.
Europe's new worldwide power because of the Columbian Exchange included mercantilism as an example of economic nationalism. Under mercantilist policies, nations developed colonies in the Americas and Asia and used them to provide raw materials such as sugar, furs, silver, and lumber. These products were then processed and sold by companies from the owner (mercantilist) nation all over the world. Each mercantilist nation competed with the others to amass and keep as many colonies as it could as a sign of economic and political power.
The Mughal Empire was a Muslim empire in South Asia that lasted from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. One of its famous leaders was Akbar. Religious tolerance was one of its features. The Taj Mahal was built during the Mughal reign. Mughal leaders claimed to be descended from the Mongols, which is where the name "Mughal" comes from.
Developed in China c. 500 C.E., printing technology moved along trade routes, arriving in Germany by the fifteenth century, where it spread rapidly into many other areas of Europe. The short structure of Western alphabets was a great benefit in printing. In contrast, the Chinese written language contained thousands of word characters, making printing more challenging.
A Muslim empire that expanded from Southwest Asia into parts of North Africa and Eastern Europe, the Ottoman Empire began in the thirteenth century and lasted until the early twentieth century. Ottoman Turks ruled this large empire. The Ottoman Empire was an important political, social, and economic conduit for Western Europe, Africa, and East Asia for many centuries.
Like the Industrial Revolution, the Enlightenment was a western European development in this era that had tremendous effects on a global scale. Having its foundations in scientific study and intellectual reason, its basic tenets included individual rights such as freedom of speech and participation in government. It greatly influenced the American and French Revolutions, which in turn inspired political revolutions around the world.
An offshoot of the Enlightenment and strongly attached to the Industrial Revolution, capitalism is an economic system based on individual economic development. Private investors use their money (capital) to invest in potentially profitable activities. Adam Smith was an important English proponent of capitalism. The industrialized nations of the early twenty-first century hang their economic hats on capitalism to varying degrees.
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era.