Flashcards in #5. Concussion Deck (18):
An injury that results in complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain; a functional or microstructural injury to neural tissue.
"physical changes not evident on standard imaging but with new technology (DTI, fMRI, ect) we can see signs of axonal injury"
Neuronal disruption - Acute phase (0-10 days post injury):
-increase in _____ levels
-decreased ______ _______
-Cells cannot repair until ____ normalizes
calcium; oxidative metabolism; Calcium
Neuronal Disruption - Persistent Phase:
-Cell death if ___ levels remain elevated
-_____ metabolism can be decreased for up to a month
axonal; Calcium; glucose
3 categories of concussion signs and symptoms?
somatic (physical body), cognitive, neurobehavioral
When is the best time to do the first SCAT?
before any injury occurs so you can get a good baseline reading.
Sign vs symptom?
Sign - something you can see
Symptom - something the patient tells you about
Examples of somatic concussion signs? (6)
-sensitivity to light
-sensitivity to sound/noise
-numbing or tingling
-balance and/or coordination problems
Examples of cognitive concussion signs? (4)
-feeling slowed down
-feeling in a 'fog'
Examples of neurobehavioral concussion signs? (6)
-sleeping more or trouble sleeping
"when an athlete suffers a second concussion before the first has fully resolved; results very but can be catastrophic"
secondary impact syndrome
Time that it takes to heal a concussion goes up _____ if you get another before the last one fully heals.
exponentially; 2 months --> 4 months --> 8 months --> 16 months --> 32 months
6 steps for when a concussion occurs?
1. Remove from play ASAP
2. Inform coaching staff you are removing them
3. Perform SCAT - wait 15 min for player to calm down
4. Refer for medical follow up
5. Ensure they have a safe ride home
6. Document injury
Three most common sideline assessment tools for concussion testing?
SCAT, King-Devick, ImPact
RTP protocol are started once an athlete is ____.
The 6 steps in the RTP protocol each take how long? If any S&S appear during a phase what happens?
24 hours; the athlete must rest for 24 hours and try the previous stage
Research shows that ___ % of concussion cases return to sport too soon and ___ % return to school to soon.