5: Physiology of pregnancy and the peurperium Flashcards Preview

Reproduction Week 3 2018/19 > 5: Physiology of pregnancy and the peurperium > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Physiology of pregnancy and the peurperium Deck (70)
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1

After fertilisation, zygotes divide into a ___ and then a ___.

morula

blastocyst

2

What part of the blastocyst

a) implants in the uterus and becomes the placenta

b) becomes the foetus itself?

a) Trophoblast layer

b) Inner cell mass

3

Where does fertilisation occur?

Ampulla of the uterine tubes

4

Where does implantation occur?

Body of the uterus

5

Which layer of the uterus is invaded by trophoblasts?

Endometrium

6

What are the outer cells of the blastocyst called?

Trophoblasts

7

Why do trophoblasts invade the endometrium?

To make space for the blastocyst

8

While the trophoblasts carve out a space in the endometrium for the blastocyst, what develops in the inner cell mass?

Amniotic cavity

where the foetus itself will develop

9

What is the decidua?

Endometrium during pregnancy

10

What is the chorion?

Outer layer of the embryo

whatever that's called at the time

11

Which cells break down maternal capillaries to form cavities filled with maternal blood?

Syncytiotrophoblasts

12

What structures extend from the placenta into the endometrium to exchange gas and nutrients with the maternal blood?

Chorionic / placental villi

13

What is another name for placental villi?

Chorionic villi

sampled for genetic analysis

14

What stops foetal and maternal blood from coming into direct contact?

Thin membrane of chorionic villi

15

By which week in development are the placenta and foetal heart functional?

Week 5

16

The framework of the placenta i.e foetal/maternal gas and nutrient exchange via chorionic villi is in place by Week 5.

How does the embryo survive before this?

Trophoblasts have invaded the endometrium

Endometrium is highly concentrated with protein, glycogen and lipids

17

Which hormone, released by the corpus luteum, stimulates the endometrium to concentrate glycogen, protein and lipids?

Progesterone

18

Which structure extends projections into the endometrium to supply the foetus with nutrients and oxygen?

Placenta

19

During development, the foetus' lungs are deflated.

Which structure plays the role of the lungs?

Placenta

20

What are the relative oxygen concentrations of the maternal and foetal blood?

Maternal blood - greater oxygen concentration

Foetal blood - less oxygen because arterial and venous blood mixes in the placenta

So diffusion occurs from mother to child

21

What are the relative carbon dioxide concentrations of the maternal and foetal blood?

Maternal blood - less carbon dioxide

Foetal blood - more carbon dioxide

So diffusion occurs from foetus to mother

22

What blood vessels are contained in the umbilical cord?

2 umbilical arteries

1 umbilical vein

23

Why does the umbilical cord have two arteries?

Unknown

deal with it

24

Which vessel carries oxygen-rich blood from the placenta to the foetus via the umbilical cord?

Umbilical vein

25

Which vessels carry poorly oxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta via the umbilical cord?

Umbilical arteries

just like the pulmonary arteries and veins, it's the opposite of normal

26

Once poorly oxygenated blood has returned to the mother FROM the foetus via the umbilical arteries, which vessels carry it to the maternal IVC?

Uterine veins --> Internal iliac veins --> Common iliac veins --> IVC

27

Once deoxygenated blood has passed from the foetus to the mother via the umbilical arteries --> placenta, which blood vessels carry it to the maternal heart?

Uterine veins --> Internal iliac veins --> Common iliac veins --> IVC

28

What is the main difference between foetal and maternal haemoglobin?

Foetal Hb has a greater oxygen affinity than adult Hb

29

Why does foetal Hb have a greater oxygen affinity than adult Hb?

Foetal haemoglobin interacts less with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG)

2,3-DPG shifts the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve to the RIGHT i.e less affinity

So less interaction with 2,3-DPG shifts the curve to the LEFT i.e greater affinity

30

Foetal blood has an (increased / decreased) concentration of Hb compared to adult blood.

increased concentration of Hb