4: Embryology of the reproductive system Flashcards Preview

Reproduction Week 3 2018/19 > 4: Embryology of the reproductive system > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: Embryology of the reproductive system Deck (43)
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1

Which germ layer is most involved in the renal and urogenital systems?

Mesoderm

2

In the very initial stages of development, which two germ layers exist?

Epiblast

Hypoblast

3

Which structure do mesoderm cells migrate through to form the middle germ layer?

Primitive streak

4

After the mesoderm forms, what three sections does it split into?

Paraxial (medial)

Intermediate

Lateral

mesoderm

5

After migrating through the primitive streak, the mesoderm forms paraxial, intermediate and lateral sections.

What are the two subdivisions of the lateral mesoderm?

Visceral

Parietal

6

The urogenital system develops from the ___ mesoderm.

(paraxial, intermediate, lateral, visceral, parietal)

intermediate mesoderm

just remember this

7

Which type of mesoderm does the urogenital system develop from?

Intermediate mesoderm

8

Early in development, which common cavity do both the renal and genital systems have?

Cloaca

9

From cranial to ventral, what are the parts of the early renal tract called?

Pronephros

Mesonephros

Metanephros

finishing at the cloaca

10

What does the term indifferent gonad mean?

You can't tell if the embryo is male or female

11

Which type of cell differentiates into the male and female gametes?

Primordial germ cell

'gamete mother cell'

12

In weeks 4 - 6 of development, the primordial germ cells migrate from the ___ ___ to the ___ ___.

yolk sac

to the sex cords

through the dorsal mesentery

13

Which two ducts are formed by the embryo in Weeks 4 - 6?

Mesonephric (Wollfian) duct

Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct

14

What is the other name for the mesonephric duct?

Wollfian duct

15

What is the other name for the paramesonephric duct?

Mullerian duct

16

Which ducts develop into the reproductive tract in

a) males

b) females?

a) Mesonephric duct

b) Paramesonephric duct

17

In terms of sex chromosomes, what determines if an embryo will be male or female?

Male - presence of sex-determining region of Y chromosome

Female - absence of sex-determining region of Y chromosome

18

What are the two germ cells found in males?

What do they do?

Sertoli cells - sperm support cells; during development they secrete Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)

Leydig cells - testosterone-producing cells

19

What type of male germ cell secretes Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)?

Sertoli cells

20

What is the function of AMH?

Causes degeneration of Mullerian tract (paramesonephric duct) in males

21

Which structure connects the mesonephric ducts to the sex cord in males?

What is the sex cord called?

Rete testis

Testis cord

22

What hormone do Leydig cells produce?

Testosterone

23

What is the function of testosterone during development?

Stimulates development of the male reproductive tract

24

What is the path of sperm from the testes to the penis?

Seminiferous tubules

Epididymis

Rete testis

Vas deferens

Spermatic --> Ejaculatory ducts

Prostatic --> Spongy urethra

25

Which specific type of testosterone stimulates the development of the male's external genitalia?

Dihydrotestosterone

26

In which condition does a male present with male external genitalia, but both male and female reproductive tracts?

Persistent Mullerian Duct syndrome

27

Mutations in the genes for which hormone causes persistent Mullerian duct syndrome?

AMH

Anti-Mullerian hormone

28

Which hormones trigger the development of the

a) male external genitalia

b) epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles?

a) Dihydrotestosterone

b) Testosterone

29

Where do the testes originate during development?

Posterior abdominal wall, 10th thoracic level

30

Which developmental structure pulls the testes inferiorly during development?

Gubernaculum