Which germ layer is most involved in the renal and urogenital systems?
In the very initial stages of development, which two germ layers exist?
Which structure do mesoderm cells migrate through to form the middle germ layer?
After the mesoderm forms, what three sections does it split into?
After migrating through the primitive streak, the mesoderm forms paraxial, intermediate and lateral sections.
What are the two subdivisions of the lateral mesoderm?
The urogenital system develops from the ___ mesoderm.
(paraxial, intermediate, lateral, visceral, parietal)
just remember this
Which type of mesoderm does the urogenital system develop from?
Early in development, which common cavity do both the renal and genital systems have?
From cranial to ventral, what are the parts of the early renal tract called?
finishing at the cloaca
What does the term indifferent gonad mean?
You can't tell if the embryo is male or female
Which type of cell differentiates into the male and female gametes?
Primordial germ cell
'gamete mother cell'
In weeks 4 - 6 of development, the primordial germ cells migrate from the ___ ___ to the ___ ___.
to the sex cords
through the dorsal mesentery
Which two ducts are formed by the embryo in Weeks 4 - 6?
Mesonephric (Wollfian) duct
Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct
What is the other name for the mesonephric duct?
What is the other name for the paramesonephric duct?
Which ducts develop into the reproductive tract in
a) Mesonephric duct
b) Paramesonephric duct
In terms of sex chromosomes, what determines if an embryo will be male or female?
Male - presence of sex-determining region of Y chromosome
Female - absence of sex-determining region of Y chromosome
What are the two germ cells found in males?
What do they do?
Sertoli cells - sperm support cells; during development they secrete Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)
Leydig cells - testosterone-producing cells
What type of male germ cell secretes Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)?
What is the function of AMH?
Causes degeneration of Mullerian tract (paramesonephric duct) in males
Which structure connects the mesonephric ducts to the sex cord in males?
What is the sex cord called?
What hormone do Leydig cells produce?
What is the function of testosterone during development?
Stimulates development of the male reproductive tract
What is the path of sperm from the testes to the penis?
Spermatic --> Ejaculatory ducts
Prostatic --> Spongy urethra
Which specific type of testosterone stimulates the development of the male's external genitalia?
In which condition does a male present with male external genitalia, but both male and female reproductive tracts?
Persistent Mullerian Duct syndrome
Mutations in the genes for which hormone causes persistent Mullerian duct syndrome?
Which hormones trigger the development of the
a) male external genitalia
b) epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles?
Where do the testes originate during development?
Posterior abdominal wall, 10th thoracic level
Which developmental structure pulls the testes inferiorly during development?