Flashcards in 5 Sexual Offenders Deck (49):
What is sexual assault?
Any nonconsensual sexual act committed by a male or a female against either a male or female.
What is the age of consent in Canada?
What are the three levels of sexual assault defined by the Criminal Code of Canada?
1. Simple sexual assault
2. Sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm
3. Aggravated sexual assault
What are all the different types of sexual acts?
- Exhibitionism/ Voyeurism
- Sexual Harassment
- Viewing and downloading pornography
- Sexual activity with a minor
- Abuse of a professional role to obtain sex
What is a voyeur?
Becoming sexually aroused from secretly spying on others as they disrobe or engage in sexual behaviour.
What is the most common illegal action relating to sexual acts?
What is an exhibitionist?
Characterized by becoming sexually aroused upon exposing one's genitals to a stranger. They are likely to engage in other unusual behaviours.
What is the second most common law-breaking sexual behaviour
What is a frotteur?
Characterized by becoming sexually aroused by touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting individual. (Can be groping)
What is a internet lurer?
Luring is the act of contacting children or adolescents online and grooming them.
What are the two types of internet lurers?
1. Those driven to engage with the child or adolescent offline
2. Those driven solely driven by fantasy who do not make plans
to victimize physically.
What is classified as rape?
Sexual assault of nonconsenting victims at least 16 years of age. (Under 16 is child rape)
What is the maximum sentence for aggravated sexual assault?
Life in prisonment
What is the most common rooted motivation for the assault?
What are the types of female sex offenders?
- Teacher-lover type
- Inter generationally predisposed
- Male Coerced type
With juvenile sex offenders, what is the typical situation?
Young males offending against young females.
What are sexual murderers?
Includes sexual activity before, during or after.
What is child pornography?
Any visual, audio or written representation that depicts a person who is or made to appear under the age of 18.
What has helped the child pornography industry expand?
What are child molesters?
Categorized by victim type (familial or non familial) or sexual interests (situational or preferential.)
Child molesters are generally more interested in ______ _______ __ ___ _______?
Sexual aspects of the offense.
Sex offender does not equal a _________.
What is pedophilia?
Sexual preference for prepubescent children. It's a state of being. Not an act.
Most child molesters are not __________.
Most pedophiles are not _____ _________.
To be diagnosed with pedophilia, a person must: (4)
1. Be sexually aroused by, have intense fantasies or be involved
in sexual behaviour of prepubescent children (13 or younger)
2. The above, for at least 6 months.
3. Be at least 16 years of age.
4. Be at least five years older than the child or children they are
Why are recidivism rates underestimated? (For sexual offending)
- They have committed more sex crimes than which they were
Sexual offenders are treated differently because they are believed to be more likely to reoffend, what are they required to do upon release from prison?
- Register with state officials, which notify the community of the
location of his/her residence.
- Prohibited from living within certain distances of schools, day
care facilities, parks and other locations.
- Can be involuntarily committed to a mental health facility after
In Canada, what does the national sex offender registry assist with?
- Assists police services with important information that will improve
their ability to investigate crimes of a sexual nature.
- Not available to the public
What is the role of the crown prosecutor in sexual offense cases?
- Can apply for a registration order (in which the offender has to
register within 15 days.)
What is the pros about registration of sexual offenders?
- Public can better supervise children and assist law enforcement.
- Prevent sex offenders from lurking / decrease unplanned
What does the Supreme Court make clear about the Sexually Violent Predator Act?
That selected individuals must have a "mental abnormality" or personality disorder that predisposes them to sexual violence which makes them oblivious to the chance of further punishment. Says that they can't control their behaviour.
What are some traits that may predispose an individual to commit a sexual offense?
- Cognitive distortions
- Deficits in empathy
- Antisocial attitudes
- Have experienced abuse themselves
- Brain abnormalities
What are some views by the public about sexual offenders? (Regarding treatment)
- That it's a waste of time.
- How can you treat someone who gets sexual pleasure from
children or violence.
- Society doesn't want to provide money to fund such programs, so
they recieve little treatment.
- Politicians are afraid to support treatment programs because it
makes them look soft on crime.
With treatment, every case is different. What are some examples? Some offenses are...
- developmental (MR)
What does treatment evolve around and directed towards?
- Sexually addictive traits
- Offending disorders
What are the types of treatment for sexual offenders?
- Relapse Prevention
- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
- Behavioural Therapies
- Chemical Castration
- Good lives model
What is relapse prevention?
- Most common treatment
- Model adapted from substance abuse literature
- Focus on internal factors (anger, depression, etc.) and external
factors (access to children, internet connection) that increases
an offenders chances to reoffend.
What is the cognitive method?
- Trying to change their view on their sex life
- How to interact with other people
- Learning new ways to function in society
- Learn to recognize signs of victimization and reroute those
What is the behaviour modification?
- Addresses behaviours associated with the offence and uses
conditioning exercises to change that.
- Try to replace the preference with a more socially acceptable
- This is proven to be minimally effective.
What is chemotherapy? (as a treatment)
- Anti-androgenic hormones have been shown to have a
moderating effect on sexual aggression and enhance self
- This is only partially effective as sexual drive is in the mind, not
How can medication can be used in treatment?
- Used to reduce testosterone
- Goal is suppress deviant sexual urges / fantasies
- Medication only works while the drug is being taken
What is the good lives model in treatment?
- Give the offenders tools to properly reach the goals of a good life
which means they have no incentive to reoffend.
What are the issues with outpatient treatment for sexual offenders?
- Sex offenses are just one aspect of many antisocial behaviours
- Sex offending is secondary to serious mental illness / retardation
- Offender will not acknowledge the inappropriate behaviour
What are the hopes of treatment outcomes?
- Realize their desires are unacceptable
- Admit they have a problem / accept responsiblity
- Know that they must gain control
- Become open with family
What are the reoffending rates for nonviolent offenses?
What are the reoffending rates for violent offenses?
What are the reoffending rates for sexual offenses?
Overall, what is the reoffending rate for any offense?