Flashcards in 6 Violence Risk Assessment Deck (54):
What are the three constructs used to define dangerousness?
Harm, Risk Level, Risk Factors
What is "harm?"
The nature and severity of the aggression predicted and it's results
What is "risk level?"
The probability that harm will occur
What is a "risk factor?"
Factors associated with the probability that violence or aggression will occur.
What is danger?
A substantial risk of physical harm to other persons
What is an example of a serious risk factor?
A specific threat toward an individual.
Ex: A guy wants to get out to find his father and
stabbing him for doing this to him.
What does "based on available information" mean?
When making an assessment, you can only base your assessment off of information that you have.
How can future dangerousness be assessed?
Violence is impossible to predict.
Risk of being violent CAN be assessment.
Ex: Doctor can give you a likelihood of having a heart attack, but can't tell you if you're going to have one or not.
What does the judge want to know about if someone is dangerous?
Wants to know the imminent risk. (Immidiate risk)
What do psychologists provide to the court for risk assessments?
History, current circumstances, future goals, etc. Expert opinions based on offender characteristics.
What is a risk assessment?
Determines the risks and then make judgements about their likelihood and what prevention measures are necessary. To simplify, know the risk factors, and what is necessary to manage the risk factors.
What do assessments take into account?
The here and now.
Do risk assessments need to be updated?
Every 2 years. (Or if a major change has occurred.)
What are the predictors of risk?
Static predictors, dynamic predictors, Risk management predictors
What are static predictors?
Factors that do not change.
Ex: Prior violence, age, drug abuse, historical factors.
What are dynamic predictors?
Features that change over time.
Ex: Emotional state, anger, hostility, lack of insight, tendency towards impulsive behaviour
Which predictors give potential for rehabilitation?
Criminals who are remorseful about their crime are...?
Less likely to reoffend. Better candidates for treatment.
What are risk management predictors?
Nature of the environment in which the person will be in the future.
What are examples of risk management predictors? (The area you want to help them with to be better)
- Lack of supervision
- Easy access to victims
- Lack of social support
- Lack of feasible plans
What are the two models for assessments?
*assessments use both
What is clinical prediction?
Clinical experience and clinical judgement
What is Actuarial prediction?
Based on tests/measures that provide probabilities and ranges.
In clinical interviews, the clinical opinion of dangerousness are opinions based on...?
What are the actuarial instruments used?
HCR-20, VRS, PCL-R, STATIC-99-R, STABLE
What is the HCR-20?
- Historical Factors (previous violence, young age at first violent incidence, relationship instability, employment problems, substance abuse issues, past mental illness, psychopathy, early maladjustment, personality disorder(s), prior supervision failure.)
- Clinical Factors (Lack of insight, current negative attitudes, active symptoms of major current mental illness, Impulsivity, unresponsive to treatment
- Risk Management Factors (Plans lack feasibility, exposure to stressors, lack of personal support, non-compliance with conditions, stress.)
What is the VRS?
- Criminal personality / attitude
- Criminal peers
- Interpersonal aggression
- Weapon use
- Violence cycle
What are the PCL-R?
Hare Psychopathy Checklist
- A clinical rating scale for 20 items
- Normal population score is 5
- Prison population score is 22
- Psychopathy is greater than 30
What are the actuarial instruments used for sex offenders?
What is an issue with the PCL-R?
You need a lot of background paperwork and case files to accurately score this.
What are the two factors in the PCL-R?
Factor 1 - Aggressive Narcissism
Factor 2 - Socially deviant lifestyle
What is included in Factor 1?
- Superficial charm
- Grandiose sense of self-worth
- Pathological lying
- Lack of remorse or guilt
- Shallow affect
- Lack empathy
- Failure to accept ones responsibilities
What is included in factors 2?
- Need for stimulation
- Parasitic lifestyle
- Early behavioural problems
- Lack of realistic goals
- Revocation of conditional release
People at high risk do not always ______ _______ ____?
Commit violent acts
People who commit violent acts may not be ____ ____?
What is the percentage of crimes involved are under the influence of alcohol at the time of the offence?
What percentage do psychiatrists accurately predict long-term future violence in institutionalized patients who have previously committed a violent act?
How can psychiatrists be more accurate in predicting long-term future violence in institutionalized patients who have previously committed a violent act?
- Assessing future violence when prediction is limited to a narrower amount of time
Why do psychiatrists over predict future violence?
- Out of concern for patients and others (reputation)
Why is future violent crime difficult to predict?
- Base Rates
- Methodological Challenges
- Judgement Error and Biases
- Structured clinical judgement
- Risk assessments made for legal purposes
What are base rates?
Represented the percentage of people within a given population who commit a criminal or violent act.
_____ _________ tend to occur with low base rates.
What are methodological challenges?
- Problems with tests used
- Length of time that the assessment can see into
the future (and how long they are good for)
- Categories of offenders
What are judgement errors and biases?
- Heuristics (experience-based techniques for problem solving. Like looking at their crime record)
- Illusionary correlations
- Ignore base rates
- Resilience on unique cues
- Overconfidence in judgements
- Role of gender (might be bias against males)
What are structured clinical judgements?
- Decisions guided by predetermined list of risk
- Judgement of risk level based on professional
- Diverse group of professionals
What is the purpose for risk assessments being made for legal purposes?
- Likelihood to reoffend (general or violent)
- Purposes of parole, probation, early release,
grant temporary absences.
Parole is not _________.
What can chance of parole do for someone?
Hopefully motivate positive behaviour for potential early release.
What is statutory release?
Automatic release of federal offenders after two-thirds of serving their sentence. If conditions are violated,remainder of sentence will be served.
What is the parole interview looking for?
Intends to show individual has changed for the better.
What are the problems with judges and juries with evaluating remorse in court?
They are not proficient in determining real and fake displays of remorse.
What can impressions of remorse influence?
How many dangerous offenders in Canada?