Flashcards in 7 Interrogation/ Lie Detection Deck (69):
What does research suggest about law enforcement officers assessing if someone is honesty/lying?
They can't reliably assess if someone is lying.
What is the SCAN?
Observation of the structure of someone's statement and determine if it is deceptive of not.
What percentage do social psychologists have at a chance of detecting lies?
What are the other ways of detecting lies? (Not detected by people)
- Micro Expressions
- fMRI tests
When was the polygraph developed?
What does the polygraph measure?
Bodily reactions (heart rate, perspiration, etc)
Reid claims the accuracy rate of the polygraph is __%?
What does research show about the accuracy rate of the polygraph? __%?
What are the other tests John Reid created?
- Control question test
- Guilty knowledge test
Why is the polygraph used in Canada even though it can't be used in court?
It can be used as a interrogation tactic. If it looks like they're lying, they will push farther with that specific topic.
What state routinely admits polygraph evidence?
What is the control question test?
- Relevant questions (related)
Ex: "Did you steal money from the bank?"
- Control questions (not directly related, but
thought to induct an emotional reaction)
Ex: "Have you ever stolen anything?"
What benefits a guilty suspect? (in the control question test)
Will be more aroused by the relevant questions because they have to lie to remain innocent
What benefits a innocent suspect? (in the control question test)
Will be more aroused by the control questions because they will worry about admitting to a past misdeed.
What is the guilty knowledge test?
People will react differently when they hear information that they know rather than information that is new to them. Developed to detect the presence of guilty knowledge and not to detect lying.
Ex: "In what room was the victim's body found? The kitchen, living room, bedroom?"
Innocent people will react to each room the same.
If information about the crime has been leaked, then what test cannot be used?
The guilty knowledge test
What is micro expression?
Brief involuntary facial expression shown on our faces when we are trying to conceal of repress an emotion. They usually occur in high stakes situations, where people have something to lose or gain. People can't fake a micro expression.
Look at slide
The wizards project
How do fMRI tests work to see if people are lying?
- Bypass conscious cognitive processing
- Measure the activity of the central nervous
system (brain and spinal cord)
What is the goal of interrogation?
- Obtain information
- Induce a a confession
Read slides on
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) + All miranda rights
What is the age and IQ differences in Miranda Rights comprehension?
- Suspects younger than 14 don't understand
- IQ is positively correlated with miranda
Look up impeach
What does unequivocal mean?
It has to be OBVIOUS. You must say "I want a lawyer." Not just hint at it.
If you waive your miranda rights, can you re-envoke them?
Yes. At any time.
How many suspects actually exercise their rights?
Why do so many people not exercise their miranda rights?
- Detectives de-emphasize warnings
- Innocent suspects don't want to show they have
anything to hide.
- Guilty suspects don't want to appear
- Suspects may not fully appreciate they are
What is the pre-interrogation interview?
- Question suspect to determine whether they are
- Interviewed in a noncustodial environment
- If you determine that the suspect is lying, proceed
into an interrogation.
What is Reid's "nine-step" model of systematic unfolding of pressure, persuasion, deception and manipulation?
- Break down resistance causing them to feel
trapped and hopeless and offer inducements.
- appear to improve his situation by minimizing
his culpability if he complies with the demand
- Conversely, make it appear his situation will be
worse if he holds to denial.
What is an inducement?
A reason to confess (something you want)
What are the nine techniques used? (in the nine-step model)
1. Interrogator confronts suspect with guilt
2. Develop "themes" that justify the crime
3. Interrupt all statements of denial
4. Overcome suspect's objections to charges
5. Ensure suspect does not tune out
6. Show sympathy, urge suspect to tell truth
7. Offer suspect face-saving alternative
8. Get suspect to recount details of crime
9. Convert statement into written confessions
* Make a chart. More details in slides.
What is maximization?
Interrogator uses "scare tactics" to intimidate suspects to confess.
- Emphasize seriousness of offence
- Make exaggerated/fase claims about evidence
- Knowledge bluff
- Bating questions.
What is minimization?
Interrogator provides false sense of security.
- Offer face-saving excuses, moral justification
- Blame victim of accomplice, downplay the
seriousness of charges.
What is an example of a permission phrase?
"May I say one thing?"
"Could I just explain something to you?"
* This means you're lying
When a person is innocent, he/she will firmly state innocence, what is an example of this?
"You're wrong, I did not do it!"
When a person is guilty, they will refer to the crime in vague terms like "____" or "__". Also, what is an example?
- That or it
- "I didn't do that!"
Confessions elicited through physical threats are ______.
Why isn't police trickery uniformly prohibited?
Courts assume police deception would be counterproductive with innocent suspects.
What is the legal limit on how long someone can be interrogated?
No legal limit.
During an interrogation, you can't make explicit promises of leniency, but you can...?
Make implicit promises.
What is an explicit promise?
"You can go home to your family after you confess"
What is an implicit promise?
"You will be much better off if you talk to us."
What is an example of bluffing about evidence in an interrogation?
Can say: "We have DNA"
Can't say: "We have your DNA."
For a confession to be admitted into court they must..?
1) Be given voluntarily
2) Be given by a person who is competent
What types of confessions obtained can be thrown out of court? (Give example)
Ex: If you deny someone food.
Courts must consider two things when admitting confessions as evidence are?
2) Whether the recipient of the statement was in
Make chart on history of coercive measures
in slides under "confessions"
What is a reason that confessions are important?
- Most influential evidence in court
What is the role of a forensic psychologist?
- Convince law enforcement to examine their
What is the case of the Darelle Exner Murder?
- In 1996, Darelle Exner was murdered
- Police interviewed three suspects, and each
- All three confessions were false as DNA evidence
helped to establish the real murderer
What is the case of Paul Ingram?
- In 1988, Ingram accused of sexual abuse and
participating in satanic rituals
- Kept in jail for five months and interrogated 23
- Hypnotized and given graphic details
- Police used leading questions to get him to
visualize the crimes.
What roles do psychologists play in the legal system?
- Educated detectives about false confessions
- Serve as an expert witness
- Educate public about the dangers of
Most people assume that confessions are voluntary and spontaneous but, in reality they are __________?
What percentage of confessions are later recanted?
What are the three types of false confessions?
1) Voluntary / Offered willingly
Why would someone give a false voluntary confession?
Motive maybe publicity or generalized guilt.
Why would someone give a false coerced-compliant confession?
- Suspect confesses with knowledge of innocence
- Motive may be to escape interrogation, external
gain or avoid punishment.
Why would someone give a false coerced-internalized confession?
- Innocent person comes to believe that he/she is
- May result from a police interrogation that is
stressful and creates a state of suggestibility
- Suspect may begin to "remember" the crime
What is compliance?
Tendency to go along with people in authority.
* Factor in coerced-compliant false confessions
What is suggestibility?
Tendency to internalize information communicated during questioning.
* Related to coerced-internalized confessions
Why are children more likely to give a false confession?
They are more suggestible.
Make a chart of "why would someone confess to a crime one didn't commit"
This is slide 41.
What are personal risk factors for false confessions?
1) Personality characteristics
3) Low Intellectual functioning
What are personality characteristics that could be a risk factor for a false confession?
- Some people are more susceptible to pressure
- Sleep deprivation and alcohol withdrawal
How is youth a personal risk factor for giving a false confession?
- More likely to waive rights, more likely to say what
police want them to say
How is low intellectual functioning a risk factor for giving a false confession?
- 22% of false confessions come from IQ's
below 70. (Mental retardation)
Why are police resistant to use videotaping in interrogations?
- That suspects will not speak freely if videotaped
- No evidence to support this and research is
currently being conducted to test this
How can you prevent false confessions?
- Investigators should evaluated suspects post-
admission narrative to determine the consistency
with the case.
- Allow expert testimony about research on