Everyone charged with an offence has the right to….
- The right to consult and instruct a lawyer
- The right to adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence
- Informed promptly and in detail of the nature of the allegation
When is a statement made by a defendant not admissible against that defendant?
S28 - The reliability rule
S29 - The oppression rule
S30 - The improperly obtained evidence rule
Is evidence offered by the prosecution of a statement made by a co-defendant in a proceeding admissible?
What would constitute an unlawful peaceful assembly?
It would require serious and aggressive effect on people or property.
What relevant matters must a judge take into account when excluding a statement?
- any pertinent physical, mental or psychological condition of the defendant
- any pertinent characteristics of the defendant including mental, intellectual or physical disability
- nature of questions
- nature of any threat, promise or representation made to the defendant
If a person has been told to remain silent by a lawyer, does this prohibit Police from asking further questions of that person?
No - there is no prohibition on further questioning by the Police after the right to silence has been asserted.
What is a statement?
A statement is a spoken or written assertion of any matter or non verbal conduct that is intended as an assertion of any matter.
What does oppression mean?
Evidence Act 2006 - s.29 The Oppression Rule.
Oppressive, violent, inhuman, or degrading conduct towards, or treatment of the defendant or another person;
a threat of conduct or treatment of that kind.
Section 16 - Freedom of peaceful assembly refers to what?
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly.
Sec 14 - Freedom of expression
Everyone has the right to freedom of expression including the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and opinions of any kind and in any form.
Sec 21 - Right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure.
Under s.21 everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search and seizure, whether of the person, property, or correspondence or otherwise.
Generally, a search or seizure will be reasonable if it is conducted under a statutory power and the public interest in administering criminal justice outweighs the individuals right to privacy.
Sec 25 (BOR) - What are the rights of a person charged with an offence?
The right to….
a) fair and public hearing impartial court
b) tried without undue delay
c) presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law
d) not to be compelled to be a witness or confess guilt
e) to be present at trial and present a defence
f) examine prosecution witnesses and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses for the defence under the same conditions of the prosecution
g) benefit of the lower penalty
h) appeal to a higher court
i) if a child, dealt with in a manner that takes into account the child’s age
S29 - When must a judge exclude a statement influenced by oppression?
The judge must exclude the statement unless satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the statement was not influenced by oppression.
Sec 18 (BOR) - Freedom of movement
1) Everyone lawfully in NZ has the right to freedom of movement and residence in NZ
2) Every NZ citizen has the right to enter NZ
3) Everyone has the right to leave NZ
4) No one who is not a NZ citizen and who is lawfully in NZ shall be required to leave NZ except under a decision taken on grounds prescribed by law
What is an unreasonable search?
If the circumstances give rise to make the search itself unreasonable or if the search is carried out in an unreasonable manner.
Unlawful searches will almost always be unreasonable.
Who must the Bill of Rights Caution be given to?
- adults who are arrested or detained, or where Police want to question an adult where there is sufficient evidence to charge that person with an offence
- children or young persons when detained or arrested and in accordance with sec 215 OT Act, before questioning a child or young when there are reasonable grounds to suspect them of having committed an offence or before asking any child or young person any question intended to obtain an admission of an offence.
If during an interview, a detainee asks to speak to a lawyer, what should you do?
Stop the interview until they have contacted a lawyer.
What is the threshold for demonstrations behavior to be an offence or breach of the peace?
The behavior must either substantially inhibit other people from enjoying their right to use the public amenity or cause greater offence than those affected can be expected to tolerate, to the extent that it is seriously disruptive of public order.
Can a person waive their right to consult a lawyer?
Yes provided that this is done clearly and with full knowledge of that right. A valid waiver requires a conscious choice that is both informed and voluntary, and it cannot be implied from silence or failure to request their rights.
S28 - When must a judge exclude an unreliable statement?
The judge must exclude the statement unless satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the circumstances in which the statement was made were not likely to have adversely affected its reliability.
Sec 202A (5)What is a defence to Possession of Offensive Weapons or Disabling Substances?
It is a defence if the person charged proves that he did not intend to use the offensive weapon or disabling substance to commit an offence involving bodily injury or the threat or fear of violence.