Flashcards in 5.1 - Specialized and Organized Plants Deck (20)
What is a biochemical process powered by light energy?
Carbon dioxide (from where?) + Water (from where?) = _________ + __________
Carbon dioxide (from the air) + water (from soil) = glucose + oxygen
Describe the upper and lower epidermal cells
Tightly interlocked to prevent physical damage or penetration by pathogens (disease)
Only one cell layer thick!
Which term is used for the part of the plant which acts as a water barrier for water conservation
The waxy cuticle
What is the etymology for cuticle? What are some ways of remembering what it is?
Cutis - Skin
What is the etymology for epidermis? What are some ways of remembering what it is?
Epi - Upon
Derma - Skin
Dermatologists work with skin
WHich cells control the opening and closing of the stomata? Where are they found?
The guard cells on the lower epidermis control stomata opening and closing.
What do the stomata and guard cells allow?
They allow gas exchange between interior and external photosynthetic cells. They also have control over water conservation, and change it based on cell needs
What is the vascular tissue?
It forms a series of tubes that transport fluids (the leaf veins - the main leaf vein splits of so every cell has access to fluids). The two kinds of vascular tissue come together in a vascular bundle.
Which kind of vascular tissue carries water and minerals? In which direction does this transport occur?
Xylem - Carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
Which kind of vascular tissue carries sugars? Where are these sugars produced?
Phloem - Carries sugars produced by leaves to other parts of the plant.
What is the palisade tissue?
Long narrow columns packed tightly together. Packed full of chloroplasts - these are the cells that are most efficient for photosynthesis, and where most photosynthesis occurs.
Where is the palisade layer located? What properties make it efficient for photosynthesis?
Palisade layer is near the upper epidermal layer - close to the point of contact with light = greatest sun exposure. Cytoplasm fluid streams in circles within the cell - chloroplasts then take turns near the top of the cell.
Describe the spongy tissue/layer
Very few chloroplasts, round with spaces between them. Gases collect in spaces between cells before being expelled through the stomata.
What are the 3 primary advantages that multicellular organisms have over single-celled organisms?
1) Greater in size
2) Different types of specialized cells - the size of a multicellular organism requires it to have many different types of cells to carry out their functions.
3) The ability to thrive in a broader range of environments - cells have the ability to adapt better and are more diverse in nature.
Why are there successive levels of organization in multicellular organisms?
More complex organisms require more organization.
What is the most basic unit of organization in organisms?
The cell: guard cells or liver cells
What are tissue cells?
A cluster of like cells that have the same structure and function: xylem tissue, muscle or connective tissue.
What happens when various types of tissue work together to perform a specific function?
You have an organ! Example: leaf or stomach