5.2 altered states of consciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.2 altered states of consciousness Deck (36):
1

female students dreams

tended to dream about failing
losing control and menacing animals
(negative things)

2

male students dreams

having supernatural powers
meeting aliens
(positive dreams)
less fear based than student females dreams

3

why do we dream?

sigmund freud (1st idea of dreams)
dreams as wish-fulfillment
(two main categories of goals we desire are sexuality and aggression)
we are not able to express these desires most of our lives, freud says dreaming allows us to let of steam which reality doesn't allow us to express

4

dreams as wish-fulfillment

if true the content of our dreams provide us with insight with what we want deep down inside of our conscious minds
(two main categories of goals we desire are sexuality and aggression-according to freud)
manifest content
latent content
dream work

5

manifest content

the actual images and experiences we have while dreaming
(that we would like to happen)
manifest content matches the wish you would enjoy fulfilling

6

latent content

the true meaning of our dreams - our deep unconscious desires - lying at the root of the symbols that form the manifest content of our dreams

7

dream work

a psychoanalysis technique in which the client records their dreams and the analyst tries to interpret their true meaning

8

interpretation of dreams flowchart

one of the many criticisms is that freudian dream analysis is inherently gender biased and overly focused on childhood experiences
(appeals to common sense a lot-no scientific way to prove the content of the dream is what freud claims it means)
there could be more than one interpretation

9

psychoanalysis is now considered

pseudoscience

10

the activation-synthesis hypothesis

(most excepted theory-dreaming serves no purpose at all)
while we sleep and particularly during the REM stage of sleep the pons in our brain stem sends random bursts of neural activity up to the rest of the brain this activity causes rapid eye movements and stimulates the visual auditory and other centres of the brain that we rely on to experience real world sensations, as a result the activity causes us to have detailed sensory experiences even without any actual sensory inputs. that is the activation part of the process, the synthesis part comes from higher parts of the brain, probably our frontal lobes,organizing the sensory experiences activated by the pons into a coherent story, which can be difficult given the randomness of the activity that the pons generates, sometimes the more sophisticated parts of our brains succeed in putting things together in a dream that isn't to absurd and has sort of a sensible structure, but other times the synthesis fails and results in dreams that are chaotic

11

the activation-synthesis hypothesis
support for the theory comes from evidence that:

1. the pons produces bursts of activity that result in the characteristic features of REM sleep
2. the pons connects with precisely the brain areas that provide us with visual, auditory and tactile sensations
3. the majority of dreams occur during the REM stage of sleep, which is also when the pons is most active

12

problem solving theory of dreaming

perhaps dreams provide a way to work through life problems?
(however there is no definitive explanation for what dreaming is for

13

disorders of consciousness

brain death
coma
persistent vegetative state
minimally conscious state
locked in state

14

brain death

a condition in which no part of the brain is functional, but life support machines may keep vital organs going (eg. heart and lungs)

15

Coma

the brain still functions somewhat, but the person still remains unconscious and unaware of their surroundings

16

persistent vegetative state

the persons conscious awareness ranges from none to minimal, but they remain almost completely unaware of themselves or their surroundings
(usually involves functional brain stain, but major damage to higher brain areas)
a person who has remained in a persistent vegetative state for more than 3 months are in a permanent vegetative state. any recovery of brain function is exceedingly rare after this amount of time

17

minimally-conscious state (MCS)

patients occasionally exhibit actions that suggest some minimal awareness
(may sometimes be able to answer yes/no questions, perform actions on request, or express emotional reactions)

18

locked-in state

the person is very aware of their surroundings, yet are unable to do anything that would make them appear conscious to others
seems to arise from damage to the pons

19

hypnosis

a set of procedures causes people to transition into a state of high suggestibility
hypnosis occurs because of a context that a hypnosis creates
(It is not magic of special powers)
the hypnotist simply creates a situation that encourages a person to alter their state of consciousness and give their free will and their perceptions of the world over to suggestions made by the hypnotist
some people are easier to hypnotize than others

20

types of hypnotic suggestions

ideomotor suggestions
challenge suggestions
cognitive perceptual suggestions

21

ideomotor suggestions

suggestions about physical actions

22

challenge suggestions

suggestions about actions that cannot be performed
(ex. cannot lower their arms or say their names)

23

cognitive perceptual-suggestions

suggestions to forget of remember something or suggestions that alter their perceptions of reality
(hypnotherapy programs to help people stop smoking seek to convince people that they dont like or crave smoking)

24

two processing systems

1. unconscious processing system
2. executive processing system

25

unconscious processing system

or hidden observer
contains our unconscious thoughts and guides our behaviours without the involvement of our conscious mind

26

executive processing system

the part of our conscious mind that maintains our awareness of events, reflects critically about the current situation, and plans and initiates our actions

27

dissociation theory of hypnosis

hypnosis severs the link b/w the hidden observer that reside in the unconscious processing system and replaces it with the suggestions of the hypnotist

28

social cognitive theory of hypnosis

the hypnotist creates expectations that the executive processing system of the hypnotized person incorporates into the conscious experience of events and into the planning and initiation of behaviours
evidence: response expectancy
the hypnotized subjects expectation that the hypnosis will be effective. this is one of the main factors that determine whether a person can be successfully hypnotized

29

positive uses of hypnotherapy:

in combination with other treatments, hypnosis can be effective for treating:
depression
anxiety
eating disorders
addictions
phobia
acute pain

30

a problem with hypnotherapy

hypnosis is a poor method of retrieving details about past life experiences
heightened suggestibility makes it quite likely that the hypnotized person will create detailed memories for events that never actually happened to them
the case of nadean cool-nadean went to therapy to seek help, the hypnotist used hypnosis to dig out old memories and she started telling stories of eating babies, being in the satanic cult. he planted false memories in her
people end up in prison for memories that never actually happened

31

hypnosis is very dangerous

they can rewrite memories from their own childhood
or change their beliefs
part of hypnosis is giving up ones free will to the suggestions made by someone else

32

meditation

is an altered state of consciousness that is much more personal the goal is to achieve a heightened state or awareness through developing a more calm internal state, exercising control over one's thoughts and feelings, and to develop a better understanding of oneself
focused-attention (FA) meditation
open-monitoring (OM) meditation

33

focused-attention (FA) meditation

involves focusing attention on a single external or internal object, such as breathing or the ticking of clock, or a candle

34

open-monitoring (OM) meditation

starts with training in focused attention meditation and proceeds to learning to attend to internal and external experiences in the moment without focusing on/judging any one aspect

35

advantages of meditation

improves emotional and behavioural control
reduces personal anxieties about the pasta and future
helps people who struggle with serious cases of depression, anxiety, and chronic pain

36

dreaming

feels like real experiences
content of our dreams can differ considerably from one person to the next
females and males dream about different things

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