15.3 mood disorders and schizophrenia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15.3 mood disorders and schizophrenia Deck (29):
1

major depression

a lengthy, chronic period of deep sadness, the perception of oneself as incompetent and worthless, and the belief in one's life will never improve
-the individuals negative feelings thoughts and beliefs and their lack of motivation to do anything are destructive to their social relationships
-constantly exhausted
-bad eating habits
-simplest tasks are very hard
-will experience a gradual increase in the severity of their symptoms

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Bipolar disorder

alternation across time bw periods of extremely positive mood and self esteem and extremely negative mood and self esteem
-manic phase
-depressive phase

3

manic phase

compels participation in risky behaviours and generates a tendency to push beyond the limits of one's physical and mental capabilities

4

depressive phase

-once the come back to earth they may be embarrassed/regretful of their behaviour

5

bipolar vs major depression rates

-1 yr prevalence
*bipolar 2.5% and major depression 7%

-lifetime prevalence
*bipolar 4%
*major depression 16%

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pessimistic explanatory style

the person habitually believes that nothing positive will happen to them in the future, bc they are not worthy of happiness and are not capable of achieving it

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personal attributions

interpretations for failures and difficulties that focus on a belief in basic personal defects in ones abilities or character

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stable attributions

interpretations for failures and difficulties that focus on a beliefs that ones flaws are permanent and unchangeable

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global attributions

interpreting failures and difficulties in one area as reflecting a general ineptness and lack of capacity to achieve positive results in any area

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the biological basis of major depression

-serotonin circuits (which are responsible for maintaining energy levels and positive emotion) seem to be under active in ppl who develop major depression
-the limbic system (which is responsible for emotion and processing emotionally charged info) is overactive in ppl who develop major depression
-the dorsal region of the frontal lobes (for maintaining concentration and inhibiting negative thoughts) is under active in ppl who develop major depression

11

the sociocultural basis of major depression

living in poverty makes ppl particularly susceptible to developing major depression
-employment issues can lead to high mobility and low income housing
-unsafe neighbourhoods can have increase violence rates, schools with lower academic standards and resources
-parents in these situation can lack the necessary social support

12

Both the lifetime and current prevalence of ______ and ______ is quite high, compared to ______

mood disorders
anxiety disorders
schizophrenia

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schizophrenia

involves a sever disruption in the association bw a persons thoughts about and perceptions of reality
-ppl with schizophrenia will often also experience disorganized and incoherent thoughts
-the disorder is believed to arise from a combo of genetics and negative environmental influences
-prodromal phase
-active phase
-residual phase

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prodromal phase

the individual experiences cognitive deficits, an increase in confusion, and problems maintaining logical thinking

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active phase

the person will develop strange delusions (or beliefs about themselves, other ppl, or the world that are simply not consistent with reality)
-the person may also experience bidi and disturbing hallucinations (visual, auditory, or other perceptions that do not originate from real events)
-the structure of the persons thoughts and speech can become illogical and incoherent, and their emotions and behaviour often become strange, unpredictable, and erratic

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residual phase

the most prominent symptoms decline, but a very suppressed willingness to engage in activities or social contact often remains

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paranoid schizophrenia

symptoms include paranoid delusions
delusions of grandeur are not uncommon

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disorganized schizophrenia

the dominant symptoms are incoherent and illogical thoughts, behaviours, and emotional reactions

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catatonic schizophrenia

a person may remain paralyzed and sometimes in very unusual position fore extremely long periods of time

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undifferentiated schizophrenia

in this variant, symptoms are a combo of symptoms characteristic of other subtypes

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residual schizophrenia

symptoms are typical for either the prodromal or residual phases

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positive symptoms of schizophrenia

symptoms that result in the individuals engaging in maladaptive behaviours

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negative symptoms of schizophrenia

symptoms that generate and absence of adaptive behaviours
10 times more likely to be victims of violent crimes

24

biological basis of schizophrenia

this graph shows the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia, if a genetic relative has been diagnosed with the disorder
-has been linked to deficiencies in the prefrontal cortex
-this region is responsible for planning and motivation, and keeping our conscious thoughts and perceptions organized
-the brain ventricles of individuals also tend to be larger mainly bc of less brain matter in the limbic system which is responsible for controlling emotion and memory
-also have overactive dopamine circuits, which is known to result in hallucinations and delusional thinking
-also have under active glutamate circuits , causing impairments in memory, organized thinking, motivation and impulse control

25

the environmental basis of schizophrenia

individuals born in winter months are more likely to develop schizophrenia which seems to have to do with expectant mothers getting the flu during critical periods for fetal brain development
-other early developmental stressors have also been linked to the development of schizophrenia, such as material stress during pregnancy and experiencing high stress levels or abuse during childhood

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the neurodevelopmental hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia originates from negative events very early in a persons life including experiences in utero

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families that are high in emotional expressiveness or high-ee families

are very critical, impatient and intolerant, intensifying the severity of schizophrenia symptoms and increasing the probability of relapse

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families that are low in emotional expressiveness or low-ee families

are very supportive and non-judgemental, which tends to reduce the severity of schizophrenia symptoms and decreases the probability of relapse

29

mood disorders

these disorders all relate to severe disruptions in a persons emotional state, typically resulting in maladaptive behaviours and thought patterns

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