5.5 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.5 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Deck (12)
1

mitochondria

specialized organelles that harness energy for the cell from chemical compounds like sugars and covert it into ATP

2

chloroplast

an organelle that converts energy of sunlight into chemical energy by synthesizing simple sugars; only found in plant cells and green algae

3

are the mitochondria and chloroplasts part of the endomembrane system?

NO

4

mitochondria and chloroplasts are semi-autonomous organelles meaning:

they can grow and multiply independently of other membrane-bound compartments, they contain their own genomes

5

the inner mitochondrial membrane has a:

proton electrochemical gradient where energy is stored for use in synthesizing ATP for the cell.

6

in the process of breaking down sugar and synthesizing ATP:

oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is released

7

mitochondria is the site of:

cellular respiration; oxygen is taken in to produce ATP

8

mitochondria have a double membrane consisting of:

an inner and outer membrane and an aqueous compartment in between

9

photosynthesis

the biochemical process in which carbohydrates are built from carbon dioxide and the energy of sunlight

10

thylakoid membrane (found in plants alongside their double membrane)

a highly folded membrane in the centre of the chloroplast that contains light-collecting pigments and that is the site of the photosynthetic electron transport chain

11

chlorophyll

the major photosynthetic pigment contained in the thylakoid membrane; it plays a key role in the chloroplast's ability to capture energy from sunlight. Chlorophyll appears green because it is poor at absorbing green wavelengths

12

using the light energy collected by chlorophyll, enzymes present in the chloroplast use:

carbon dioxide as a carbon source to produce carbohydrates