8.1 Photosynthesis: An Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8.1 Photosynthesis: An Overview Deck (20)
1

photosynthesis is the major entry point for energy into biological systems because it is the source of:

all the food we eat (plants and indirect consumption of meats), oxygen, fuels for heat and transportation

2

where does photosynthesis take place?

everywhere as long as sunlight is available (both eukaryotes and prokaryotes)

3

photic zone

the surface layer of the ocean through which enough sunlight penetrates to enable photosynthesis

4

carbohydrates are synthesized from CO2 but have more chemical energy in their bonds than CO2, so to build carbohydrates from CO2 requires:

an input of energy (sunlight)

5

how does energy from sunlight become incorporated into chemical bonds?

the synthesis of carbohydrates from CO2 and water is a reduction-oxidation or redox reaction

6

reduction

a reaction in which a molecule gains electrons (and gains energy)

7

oxidation

describes a reaction in which a molecule loses electrons (and releases energy)

8

electron donor

a molecule that loses electrons

9

in photosynthesis, energy from sunlight is used to produce:

ATP and electron donor molecules capable of reducing CO2 (inputs energy to form carbohydrates)

10

where do the electrons used to reduce CO2 come from?

the oxidation of water (an electron donor) results in the production of electrons, protons and O2

11

the oxidation of water is linked with:

the reduction of CO2 through a series of redox reactions in which electrons are passed from one compound to another

12

photosynthetic electron transport chain

a series of redox reactions in which light energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to power the movement of electrons; in oxygenic photosynthesis, the electrons ultimately come from water and the terminal electron acceptor is NADP+

13

the absorbed sunlight provides the energy that:

drives electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain

14

movement of electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain is used to produce:

ATP and NADPH (which provides the energy needed to synthesize carbohydrates in the Calvin cycle)

15

Calvin cycle

the process in which carbon dioxide is reduced to synthesize carbohydrates, with ATP and NADPH as the energy sources

16

in photosynthetic bacteria, the photosynthetic electron transport chain is located:

on the plasma membrane

17

thylakoid membrane (in eukaryotes)

a highly folded membrane in the centre of the chloroplast that contains light-collecting pigments and that is the site of the photosynthetic electron transport chain

18

grana (singular: granum)

interlinked structures that form the thylakoid membrane, they look like stacked pancakes

19

lumen

in eukaryotes, the continuous interior of the endoplasmic reticulum; in plants, a fluid-filled compartment enclosed by the thylakoid membrane; generally, the interior of any tubelike structure

20

stroma

the region surrounding the thylakoid, where carbohydrate synthesis takes place