6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics Deck (19)

all processes in a cell including a transfer or transformation in energy are subject to:

the laws of thermodynamics


first law of thermodynamics

the law of conservation of energy: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed-it can only be transformed from one form into another


when energy is transformed from one form to another, according to the first law of thermodynamics:

the total amount of energy remains the same


when energy changes forms....

the total amount of energy remains constant


in changing from one form of energy to another....

the energy available to do work decreases (some of the energy is available to do work and some is not available)


energy transformations are never 100% efficient since:

the amount of energy available to do work decreases every time energy changes forms-energy, often in the form of heat is released and used to increase entropy


the energy that is not available to do work takes the form of :

an increase in disorder


second law of thermodynamics

the principle that the transformation of energy is associated with an increase in the degree of disorder in the universe


entropy (S)

the degree of disorder in the system


microstates (synonymous with entropy)

the number of possible motions and positions of a molecule in any given system


in chemical reactions, most of the entropy increase occurs through:

the transformation of various forms of energy into thermal energy (heat)


thermal energy is:

a type of kinetic energy; the random motion of molecules that results in increased temperature


what is the correlation between temperature and disorder?

the higher the temperature, the more rapid the molecule movement and the higher the disorder


the amount of chemical potential energy expended is equal to:

the amount of kinetic energy plus the amount of thermal energy


catabolic reactions result in:

an increase in entropy as a single ordered biomolecule is broken down into several smaller ones with more freedom to move around


anabolic reactions seem to decrease entropy, does this mean the second law of thermodynamics is false?

the second law of thermodynamics applies to the universe as a whole, not to a chemical reaction in isolation


a local decrease in entropy is always accompanied by:

an even higher increase in the entropy of the surroundings - NET INCREASE IN ENTROPY


the production of heat in a chemical reaction increases:

entropy because heat is associated with the motion of molecules


the maintenance of the high degree of function and organization of a single cell or a multicellular organism requires:

a constant input of energy