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Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
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1

What is the predominant monosaccharide produced by the digestion of all dietary carbohydrates?

2. glucose

2

The final molecules that are absorbed from the digestion of the carbohydrate in the spaghetti (noodles) and cream sauce are ____ and ________.

2. glucose and
4 galactose

3

What is the likely reason that large quantities of fructose may cause gut discomfort?

1. Facilitated diffusion is faster than active transporting

4

Which is the following physiological changes will raise blood glucose and which will lower blood glucose?

1. Increase blood insulin
2. Increase blood glucagon
3. Increase blood corticosteroid
4. Decreased insulin receptor funcion

Lowers blood glucose
1. Increase blood insulin

Increase blood glucose
2. Increase blood glucagon
3. Increase blood corticosteroid
4. Decreased insulin receptor function

5

The fructose:glucose ratio of high-fructose corn syrup is approximately ____.

50:50

6

Which tissue metabolizes fructose?

liver

7

For determining the glycemic index of foods, what measure of food composition is used to standardize each item tested?

2. Equal in carbohydrate weight

8

To convert the glycemic index of a food to glycemic load, the glycemic index is:

Divided by the grams of carbohydrate per serving size

9

Name 5 factors that can influence the glycemic index of a food?

1. Temp of the food when eaten
2. Fat and acid content
3. type of sugar or starch
4. processing that removes fiber
5. processing that grinds the food into smaller parts

10

T/F: Although white bread and regular spaghetti share a similar source of carbohydrate, most glycemic index tables suggest that white bread will have a greater glycemic effect compared to regular speghetti.

TRUE

11

Name 5 concerns among critics of the glycemic index?

1. GI is too complex
2. Apparently similar foods have a wide variation in GI values
3. Some low GI foods are not healthy
4. The way GI is measured does not resemble the way people eat
5. GI only measures short-term effects on BS, not long-term

12

Carrot has a high ____ _____, but low ____ ____?

glycemic index, glycemic load

13

Which of the following, according to LPI (Linus Pauling), has been reported by cohort studies?

1. Increased risk of gallbladder disease
2. Increased risk of T2DM
3. Increased risk of coronary heart disease
4. All of the above

all answers correct

14

According to LPI (Linus Pauling), which 4 mechanisms have been identified that could explain a potential harmful influence of high glycemic load or glycemic index diets on health?


1. Increased CRP
2. Increased growth of cancer by hyperinsulinemia
3. Increased serum triglycerides and low HDL
4. Reduced postprandial satiety, earlier hunger and increased food intake

15

According the the article by LPI, which 2 cancer sites is there meta-analysis evidence of an association with high glycemic load diets.

1 and 4: Colorectal and endometrial

16

Research on low carb-diets reviewed in Nutrition Source article - which statement is true?
1. Prospective studies show both animal and plant-based low-carb diets reduce disease and diabetes risk in women
2. Subjects in the LEARN trial were able to consistently follow the diets they were assigned to
3. short-term weight loss trials show low-carb diets more effective than low fat
4. at the end of a 2 year trial, low carb was more effective than other diets

3. short-term weight loss trials show low-carb diets more effective than low fat

17

In the human, most triacylglyerols are synthesized by _________.

the liver

18

A protein sparing shift in metabolism from gluconeogenesis to lipolysis occurs during the ___ state

starvation state

19

AA used primarily by muscle for synthesis of dispensable AA and protein synthesis are _____.

BCAA

20

Which of the following statements is false?
1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents may be as high as 44%
2. Majority of US adults over 20 has metabolic syndrome
3. Individuals with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop T2DM

2. Majority of US adults over 20 has metabolic syndrome

21

Insulin resistance and met syn are believed to contribute to increased vascular disease risk through related effects on what 4 mechanisms?


1. serum lipoproteins
2. Inflammatory mediators
3. coagulation factors (prothrombotic state)
4. blood pressure

22

Name 5 typical criterion for identifying metabolic syndrome in an individual?

1. abdominal obesity
2. Triglyceride blood levels
3. HDL levels
4. Insulin resistance or impaired glucose regulation
5. Elevated BP

23

T/F: A patient taking medication for hypertension, high triglycerides, and high fasting glucose would not qualify for the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome if the drug therapies were effective for keeping those risk factors within normal limits.

FALSE

24

The diagnosis of obesity corresponds to a Body Mass Index (BMI) of at least ________.

30

25

How can metabolic syndrome be reversed during its early stages?

loss of at least 7% of body weight

26

Dietary fiber can be classified as viscous (soluble) or non-viscous. Which of the following is more likely to be a characteristic of most viscous dietary fiber, but not likely a characteristic of most non-viscous dietary fibers?

1. Binds Bile acids

27

T/F: Insoluble food fiber is thought to be more helpful in normalizing blood sugar in diabetics than soluble fiber.

FALSE

28

T/F: Non-viscous food fiber is thought to be more helpful in preventing diverticulosis of the intestine than is viscous food fiber.

TRUE

29

Processed foods that may have cellulose purified from wood added to them include all of the following except _____.
1. Cake mix
2. Sandwich spread
3. Fruit juice extract
4. Canned green beans

4. Canned green beans

30

Fructans found in chicory, onions and Jerusalem artichokes are ___ that promote the growth of _____ in the gut.

fibers
bifidobacteria