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Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
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61

T/F: Women are more efficient in converting ALA into EPA and DHA compared to men.

TRUE

62

Which type of fish tend to have higher levels of environmental contaminants?

older, larger, predatory fish

63

Delivers dietary fatty acids from the intestine to extrahepatic (liver) cells via the action of lipoprotein lipase

Chylomicron (Kai-low-micron)

64

Which TWO categories of dietary fats lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol when they are consumed in place of carbohydrates?

Monounsaturated fat (MUFA)
polyunsaturated fat (PUFA)

65

_____ _____ species can be formed during normal physiological processes

Reactive oxygen

66

Which antioxidant is most effective in rapidly eliminating hydroxyl radicals prior to initiation of oxidative damage?

Vit C

67

Which antioxidant is most effective in terminating chain-propagation reactions in cell membranes?

Vit E

68

Which TWO of the following are reactive oxygen species, but do not fit the definition of a free radical?

1. Hydrogen or lipid peroxide
2. Singlet oxygen

69

Respiratory burst refers to the use of which reactive oxygen species by white blood cells to destroy foreign microbes?

1. Superoxide

70

The following are sources of ____ ____ production in the human body?
1. Tissue ischemia after injury
3. Elimination of superoxide radicals
4. Degradation of long-chain fatty acids

hydrogen peroxide

71

The Fenton reaction involves the production of hydroxyl radical by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide with ____.

Iron

72

Which reactive species is considered a major initiator of lipid peroxidation in the body?

1. Hydroxyl radical

73

Which reactive lipid species is the result of a propagation reaction between oxygen and lipid carbon-centered radicals?

3. Lipid Peroxyl radicals

74

Which THREE of the following minerals are necessary to the optimal performance of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in human tissues?

Zn, Mg, Cu

75

T/F: The reactive species scavenging function of vitamin C is limited to reducing radical species, it does not scavenge non-radical species.

FALSE

76

What mineral is essential to the function of glutathione peroxidase?

Sel

77

What is the role of glutathione in the reaction between glutathione peroxidase and various peroxide species?

4. Hydrogen donor (reducing agent)

78

Which reactive species is referred to as an "electronically excited" molecule, and is inactivated by a process called "quenching"?

Singlet Oxygen

79

Which B-vitamin functions as a coenzyme to regenerate oxidized glutathione?

Niacin (B3)

80

Natural and synthetic Vitamin ___ are chemically identical and there's no known difference in their biological activities and availability

Vit C

81

Which of the following is the source of hydrogen atoms for the regeneration of ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbate?

Glutathione

82

Which of the following enzymes is required for the synthesis of vitamin C and not present in human biochemistry?

Gulonolactone oxidase

83

Which reaction is typical of the kind catalyzed by vitamin C?

Hydroxylation

84

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of vitamin C?
1. Broccoli
2. Green pepper
3. Brussels sprouts
4. Carrots

4. Carrots

85

Based on data from the National Institutes of Health on plasma and tissue saturation, what level of daily vitamin C intake is suggested by the Linus Pauling Institute as a practical recommendation?

400 mg

86

Name 4 functions of vitamin C in human biology?

1. Norepinephrine synthesis
2. Collagen synthesis
3. Carnitine synthesis
4. Serotonin synthesis

87

Which TWO minerals can be reduced by ascorbate, leading to increased capacity for generation of reactive oxygen species?

4. Iron
5. Copper

88

An intervention trial found that large doses of vitamin C reduced blood levels of which toxic metal?

Lead

89

According to the LPI article "The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C," which of the following statements is FALSE?

1. Mineral salts of ascorbic acid (mineral ascorbates) are buffered and therefore less acidic
2. Bioavailability of ascorbic acid from slow-release preparations has not been found to be greater than that of plain ascorbic acid
3. Published human research finds superior bioavailability of Ester-C compared to a standard ascorbic acid supplement
4. The bioavailability of ascorbic acid appears equivalent whether it is in the form of powder, chewable tablets, or non-chewable tablets.

3. Published human research finds superior bioavailability of Ester-C compared to a standard ascorbic acid supplement

90

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin C was set to help reduce the risk of what side effect of vitamin C supplementation?

3. Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea