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Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
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211

T/F: Aldosterone promotes the excretion of sodium and reabsorption of potassium.

False
conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, increase in water retention

212

Name 4 conditions suspected to increase the risk of gastric cancer?

2. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori
3. High intake of salted foods
4. Low intake of fruits and vegetables
5. High intake of nitrosamines

213

Chloride contributes significantly to which of the following functions?

1. protein synthesis
2. muscle contraction
3. gastric acidity
4. wound healing

3. gastric acidity

214

In terms of physiological function, acid-base balance refers to:

2. the control of the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids

215

Which of the physiological buffers has the most potent buffering capacity?

4. protein

216

Hypokalemia may occur as the result of which of the following?

4. prolonged diarrhea

217

T/F: Potassium decreases urinary calcium excretion while sodium increases it.

TRUE

218

T/F: A high potassium diet may decrease the risk of kidney stones by increasing the dietary acid load.

FALSE

219

Name four macrominerals associated with the control of blood pressure?

1. Sodium
3. Calcium
4. Chloride
5. Magnesium

220

research has shown that supplements of which mineral are associated with significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, especially in individuals with hypertension?

potassium

221

T/F: All hypertensive individuals experience a rise in blood pressure with higher salt intake.

FALSE

222

T/F: Hypertensive individuals taking antihypertensive medications are likely to benefit from sodium restriction.

TRUE

223

What is the most important physiological defense against overheating?

evaporation

224

Name 4 macrominerals is typically present in sweat?


1. Chloride
2. Magnesium
3. Potassium
4. Sodium

225

Which of the following is an emerging concern in situations of very long endurance exercise events?

Hyponatremia

226

Dehydration equivalent to what percentage of body weight can impair endurance performance?

2%

227

Which of the following foods contain the least amount of iron?

Green leafy veggies such as spinach
Organ meats such as liver
Dairy products such as cheese
Dried fruit such as raisins
Bivalves such as oysters

3. Dairy products

228

Which 3 iron form(s) are used for food fortification?

Elemental iron, ferrous, ferric

229

Which vitamin specifically promotes gastrointestinal iron absorption?

Vit C

230

Indicate the two beverages containing polyphenols and/or oxalates that most strongly inhibit iron absorption.

Coffee and Tea

231

What is the function of a chelator in iron nutrition?

Enhance or inhibit absorption or bound non-heme iron

232

true or false: hepcidin is produced by the liver when iron stores are high and released to the blood to act at the surface of enterocytes and macrophages.

true?
hepcidin

233

Which mineral is critical for oxidizing iron to be bound by transferrin for delivery to the tissues from the gut and liver?

Copper

234

name 4 enzymatic processes that require iron?

1. Glycolysis
3. Carnitine synthesis
4. Gluconeogenesis
5. Conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water

235

Name 4 functions of a heme-containing compound or enzyme?

1. Protection against cellular accumulation of the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide
2. Detoxification of drugs and pollutants
3. Electron transport in mitochondria

236

3 vitamins/minerals required for heme synthesis:

B6, Zn, Fe

237

4 groups considered at high risk for iron deficiency compared to the others?

1. Adolescents during growth spurts
3. Menstruating females
4. Pregnant women
5. Infants and children under 4 years of age

238

Indicate the three correct statements regarding hereditary hemochromatosis. (3)

2. Begins around 20 years of age
3. Seen most often in adult Caucasians
6. Associated with tissue damage

239

Which of the following is false?

1. Overall absorption of iron from the US diet is estimated to be over 20%.
2. In a recent study of an elderly population, high iron stores were much more common than was iron deficiency.
3. Absorption of iron in normal individuals is regulated in relation to body iron stores.
4. Heme iron occurs naturally only in foods of animal origin.
5. A supplement containing 100% of the Daily Value for iron supplies well above the RDA for men and most postmenopausal women.

1. Overall absorption of iron from the US diet is estimated to be over 20%.

240

All of the following tend to increase as iron depletion becomes more severe in an otherwise healthy individual? (4)


1. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin
2. Transferrin iron-binding capacity
3. Serum transferrin receptors
5. Gastrointestinal iron absorption