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Flashcards in Ch6 Deck (76)
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1
Q

___Is a developed skill that helps you predict fire behavior

A

Reading smoke

2
Q

Smoke leaving a structure has four key attributes:

A

Volume, velocity (pressure), density, and color

3
Q

_______often leads to combustion

A

Pyrolysis

4
Q

Surfaces that are smoking, not burning, are ___________.

A

Off aggregating

5
Q

_______Are the more prevalent solids in smoke

A

Soot and ash

6
Q

___Is Carbon, (officially carbon black) and Carbon can support flaming

A

Soot

7
Q

The trace metals and minerals, depleted salts, that can no longer support flame

A

Ash

8
Q

From most interior fires, the volumetric composition of smoke is mostly________.

A

Particulate matter

9
Q

An _______can be defined as a suspended or propelled liquid

A

Aerosol

10
Q

Hydrocarbons give smoke a____color

A

Satin wet black

11
Q

Some very common hydrocarbons in smoke can self-ignite as low as 450°F, but they often do not ignite because the particulates have made the smoke too rich to burn. This makes smoke a typical house fire_________.

A

Amazingly explosive

12
Q

Smoke is ignitable as low as___and has a collective flammable range of_to_in air!

A

450F

1-74%

13
Q

Self ignition temperature of carbon monoxide

A

1128°F

14
Q

Self ignition temperature of hydrogen cyanide

A

1000°F

15
Q

Self ignition temperature of benzene

A

928°F

16
Q

Self ignition temperature of Acrolein

A

450°F

17
Q

Two triggers may cause accumulated smoke to ignite :

A

The right temperature and the right mixture

18
Q

Smoke gases that are below their ignition temperature but above flashpoint need only a proper air mix and a sudden spark or flame to complete their ignition, called a_____ignition

A

Piloted

19
Q

The ignition of smoke that has pressurized a room or box likely result in an __________

A

Explosive surge

20
Q

The ISO who watches what the smoke is doing makes better decisions than the one focused on flaming, because the smoke tells you how intense the fire is about to become as opposed to how bad it currently is

A

Key sentence

21
Q

The avenues that heat, smoke, flames, and combustion air follow

A

Flow paths

22
Q

A compartmentalized fire condition where open flaming decreases because smoke production displaces and limits available combustion air, although heating continues to produce smoke

A

Ventilation-limited phase

*introduction of air will cause the fire to rapidly transition into an explosive growth phase

23
Q

A rapidfire growth phenomenon that occurs when combustion air is reintroduced into a ventilation controlled fire, leading to smoke flame over and room flashovers

A

Explosive growth phase

24
Q

A proactive solution to prevent the explosive growth phase includes_____, which is the application of water to ceilings and walls to help quench and cool moving smoke

A

Protective cooling

25
Q

Some call this the fuel limited phase.

A

Decay phase

26
Q

A hostile event warning sign and is characterized as the intermittent ignition of small pockets of smoke, usually seen as fingers of flame that dance through the upper smoke Layer

A

Ghosting

27
Q

Ghosting is not necessarily a hostile our event but serves as a warning sign of impending?

A

Flashover or flame over

28
Q

A hostile fire event that includes the ignition insisting burning of the overhead smoke a layer within a room and/or hallway

A

Flame over

29
Q

A hostile fire event that occurs when a spark or flame is introduced into a pocket of smoke that is below ignition temperature but above some aggregate flashpoint

A

Smoke explosion

30
Q

Smoke flame over upon the breaking of windows or opening of the doors is a late sign of?

A

Explosive growth phase

31
Q

Exhaust flow paths that intermittently puff or try to suck air, open doors and windows

A

Explosive growth phase

32
Q

The explosive growth event, flame over and delayed flashover, is triggered by a volume shift between smoke in the air that occurs over a_to_time span

A

10 to 90 seconds

33
Q

The ______event will ignite more like a detonation, burning above the speed of sound, and will likely include a shockwave.

A

Backdraft

34
Q

A dangerously late warning sign of flashover

A

Sensation of heat

35
Q

Sets the stage for understanding the amount of fuels that are offgassing in a given space

A

Volume

36
Q

Can create an impression of the fire relative to the size of the space it fills

A

Volume of smoke

37
Q

An indicator of pressure that has built up in the building

A

Velocity

38
Q

From a practical fire behavior point of view, two forces cause smoke to pressurize in a building:

A

Convection heat or smoke volume

39
Q

Turbulence smoke is caused by____

A

Serious heat

40
Q

Smoke that is being developed by pyrolysis begins____

A

Laminar

41
Q

Turbulent smoke as filled a compartment is a warning sign of?

A

Impending flashover

42
Q

The most important smoke observation is whether it’s velocity is?

A

Turbulent or laminar

*previous TQ

43
Q

The smoke velocity you see outside the building is ultimately determined by?

A

The size and restrictiveness of the exhaust opening

44
Q

Comparing the velocity of smoke at different openings of the building can help the fire officer determine?

A

The location of the fire

*faster smoke is closer to the fire seat

45
Q

________ can help you understand much about the fire, how hot it is and where it is

A

Velocity

46
Q

____Tells you how bad things are going to be

A

Density

47
Q

Turbulent smoke velocity that has volume filled a compartment indicate that?

A

A flashover is imminent

48
Q

Turbulent smoke velocity that is thin and dark indicates that?

A

A well ventilated fire is nearby

49
Q

Generally speaking, turbulent smoke is always fast. Lemon or smoke can be fast or slow; a faster laminar flow indicates the presence of?

A

More heat

50
Q

The density of smoke refers to its?

A

Thickness

51
Q

_______ tells you how much fuel is Laden in the smoke

A

Thickness

52
Q

Smoke _____ sets up fuel continuity

A

Thickness

53
Q

Thick, laminar flowing smoke can ignite because of the___of the fuel to the flaming source

A

Continuity

54
Q

Thick, black smoke in a compartment reduces the chance of life sustainability due to?

A

Smoke toxicology

55
Q

____Tell the stage of healing and points to the location of the fire in a building

A

Smoke color

56
Q

When flames touch surfaces that are not burning, the surfaces begin to Off gas___almost immediately

A

Black smoke

57
Q

Blacksmoke that is high velocity and very thin, low density, is?

A

Flame pushed

58
Q

Interpreted from the outside of the building, then, Blacksmoke means that Blank is nearby

A

Open and ventilated flaming

59
Q

______Can also tell you the distance to a fire

A

Color

60
Q

Fast-moving dirty white smoke indicates that the smoke you see has?

A

Traveled some distance, but a hot fire exists

61
Q

Brown smoke from structural spaces indicates that significant heat is present. The issuance of brown smoke from gable end vents, eaves, and floor seems is a warning sign of?

A

Impending collapse

62
Q

Brown smoke from structural spaces containing glued trusses, OSB, or LVL can indicate that____has been already lost

A

Critical strength

63
Q

Upon seeing smoke that is the same color and velocity being pushed from multiple building seams, the ISO should inform the IC that the fire may have?

A

Extended to concealed spaces

64
Q

In other words, the smoke VV DC has gotten as bad as it can be

A

Black fire

65
Q

A sure sign of impending auto ignition and flashover

A

Black fire

66
Q

Black fire can reach temperatures of over?

A

1000°F

67
Q

The solution to black fire is the same as that for flames:

A

Vent and cool!

68
Q

___In the air increases resistance to smoke movement but a cohesive qualities of water vapor

A

Humidity

69
Q

In a well ventilated building, wind can speed up smoke velocity and give a false read on?

A

Heat or location, although it should fan flaming

70
Q

Sucking, puffing, and breathing signs indicate that the fire is ?

A

Out of thermal balance

71
Q

All spoke observations must be analyzed in proportion to?

A

The building

72
Q

3 step process for reading smoke:

The step should be fine and or confirm your read on fire behavior in firefighting effectiveness

A

Step two. Analyze the contributing factors to determine whether they are affecting VVDC

73
Q

3 step process for reading smoke:

This exercise should give you a strong understanding of the fire size, location, and spread potential, and it allows you to capture any warning signs of hostile fire events

A

Step one. View the smoke VVDC, then compare the differences in the attributes from each opening from which smoke is emitting

74
Q

3 step process for reading smoke:

Remember the_________can change the meaning of VVDC

A

Size of the box

75
Q

___Is indicative of the severity of hostile events

A

Density

76
Q

Color can be filtered by distance or resistance, so rely on___for the true Heat story

A

Velocity