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Flashcards in Ch6 Deck (76):
1

___Is a developed skill that helps you predict fire behavior

Reading smoke

2

Smoke leaving a structure has four key attributes:

Volume, velocity (pressure), density, and color

3

_______often leads to combustion

Pyrolysis

4

Surfaces that are smoking, not burning, are ___________.

Off aggregating

5

_______Are the more prevalent solids in smoke

Soot and ash

6

___Is Carbon, (officially carbon black) and Carbon can support flaming

Soot

7

The trace metals and minerals, depleted salts, that can no longer support flame

Ash

8

From most interior fires, the volumetric composition of smoke is mostly________.

Particulate matter

9

An _______can be defined as a suspended or propelled liquid

Aerosol

10

Hydrocarbons give smoke a____color

Satin wet black

11

Some very common hydrocarbons in smoke can self-ignite as low as 450°F, but they often do not ignite because the particulates have made the smoke too rich to burn. This makes smoke a typical house fire_________.

Amazingly explosive

12

Smoke is ignitable as low as___and has a collective flammable range of_to_in air!

450F

1-74%

13

Self ignition temperature of carbon monoxide

1128°F

14

Self ignition temperature of hydrogen cyanide

1000°F

15

Self ignition temperature of benzene

928°F

16

Self ignition temperature of Acrolein

450°F

17

Two triggers may cause accumulated smoke to ignite :

The right temperature and the right mixture

18

Smoke gases that are below their ignition temperature but above flashpoint need only a proper air mix and a sudden spark or flame to complete their ignition, called a_____ignition

Piloted

19

The ignition of smoke that has pressurized a room or box likely result in an __________

Explosive surge

20

The ISO who watches what the smoke is doing makes better decisions than the one focused on flaming, because the smoke tells you how intense the fire is about to become as opposed to how bad it currently is

Key sentence

21

The avenues that heat, smoke, flames, and combustion air follow

Flow paths

22

A compartmentalized fire condition where open flaming decreases because smoke production displaces and limits available combustion air, although heating continues to produce smoke

Ventilation-limited phase

*introduction of air will cause the fire to rapidly transition into an explosive growth phase

23

A rapidfire growth phenomenon that occurs when combustion air is reintroduced into a ventilation controlled fire, leading to smoke flame over and room flashovers

Explosive growth phase

24

A proactive solution to prevent the explosive growth phase includes_____, which is the application of water to ceilings and walls to help quench and cool moving smoke

Protective cooling

25

Some call this the fuel limited phase.

Decay phase

26

A hostile event warning sign and is characterized as the intermittent ignition of small pockets of smoke, usually seen as fingers of flame that dance through the upper smoke Layer

Ghosting

27

Ghosting is not necessarily a hostile our event but serves as a warning sign of impending?

Flashover or flame over

28

A hostile fire event that includes the ignition insisting burning of the overhead smoke a layer within a room and/or hallway

Flame over

29

A hostile fire event that occurs when a spark or flame is introduced into a pocket of smoke that is below ignition temperature but above some aggregate flashpoint

Smoke explosion

30

Smoke flame over upon the breaking of windows or opening of the doors is a late sign of?

Explosive growth phase

31

Exhaust flow paths that intermittently puff or try to suck air, open doors and windows

Explosive growth phase

32

The explosive growth event, flame over and delayed flashover, is triggered by a volume shift between smoke in the air that occurs over a_to_time span

10 to 90 seconds

33

The ______event will ignite more like a detonation, burning above the speed of sound, and will likely include a shockwave.

Backdraft

34

A dangerously late warning sign of flashover

Sensation of heat

35

Sets the stage for understanding the amount of fuels that are offgassing in a given space

Volume

36

Can create an impression of the fire relative to the size of the space it fills

Volume of smoke

37

An indicator of pressure that has built up in the building

Velocity

38

From a practical fire behavior point of view, two forces cause smoke to pressurize in a building:

Convection heat or smoke volume

39

Turbulence smoke is caused by____

Serious heat

40

Smoke that is being developed by pyrolysis begins____

Laminar

41

Turbulent smoke as filled a compartment is a warning sign of?

Impending flashover

42

The most important smoke observation is whether it's velocity is?

Turbulent or laminar

*previous TQ

43

The smoke velocity you see outside the building is ultimately determined by?

The size and restrictiveness of the exhaust opening

44

Comparing the velocity of smoke at different openings of the building can help the fire officer determine?

The location of the fire

*faster smoke is closer to the fire seat

45

________ can help you understand much about the fire, how hot it is and where it is

Velocity

46

____Tells you how bad things are going to be

Density

47

Turbulent smoke velocity that has volume filled a compartment indicate that?

A flashover is imminent

48

Turbulent smoke velocity that is thin and dark indicates that?

A well ventilated fire is nearby

49

Generally speaking, turbulent smoke is always fast. Lemon or smoke can be fast or slow; a faster laminar flow indicates the presence of?

More heat

50

The density of smoke refers to its?

Thickness

51

_______ tells you how much fuel is Laden in the smoke

Thickness

52

Smoke _____ sets up fuel continuity

Thickness

53

Thick, laminar flowing smoke can ignite because of the___of the fuel to the flaming source

Continuity

54

Thick, black smoke in a compartment reduces the chance of life sustainability due to?

Smoke toxicology

55

____Tell the stage of healing and points to the location of the fire in a building

Smoke color

56

When flames touch surfaces that are not burning, the surfaces begin to Off gas___almost immediately

Black smoke

57

Blacksmoke that is high velocity and very thin, low density, is?

Flame pushed

58

Interpreted from the outside of the building, then, Blacksmoke means that Blank is nearby

Open and ventilated flaming

59

______Can also tell you the distance to a fire

Color

60

Fast-moving dirty white smoke indicates that the smoke you see has?

Traveled some distance, but a hot fire exists

61

Brown smoke from structural spaces indicates that significant heat is present. The issuance of brown smoke from gable end vents, eaves, and floor seems is a warning sign of?

Impending collapse

62

Brown smoke from structural spaces containing glued trusses, OSB, or LVL can indicate that____has been already lost

Critical strength

63

Upon seeing smoke that is the same color and velocity being pushed from multiple building seams, the ISO should inform the IC that the fire may have?

Extended to concealed spaces

64

In other words, the smoke VV DC has gotten as bad as it can be

Black fire

65

A sure sign of impending auto ignition and flashover

Black fire

66

Black fire can reach temperatures of over?

1000°F

67

The solution to black fire is the same as that for flames:

Vent and cool!

68

___In the air increases resistance to smoke movement but a cohesive qualities of water vapor

Humidity

69

In a well ventilated building, wind can speed up smoke velocity and give a false read on?

Heat or location, although it should fan flaming

70

Sucking, puffing, and breathing signs indicate that the fire is ?

Out of thermal balance

71

All spoke observations must be analyzed in proportion to?

The building

72

3 step process for reading smoke:

The step should be fine and or confirm your read on fire behavior in firefighting effectiveness

Step two. Analyze the contributing factors to determine whether they are affecting VVDC

73

3 step process for reading smoke:

This exercise should give you a strong understanding of the fire size, location, and spread potential, and it allows you to capture any warning signs of hostile fire events

Step one. View the smoke VVDC, then compare the differences in the attributes from each opening from which smoke is emitting

74

3 step process for reading smoke:

Remember the_________can change the meaning of VVDC

Size of the box

75

___Is indicative of the severity of hostile events

Density

76

Color can be filtered by distance or resistance, so rely on___for the true Heat story

Velocity