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Flashcards in 5a Deck (110)
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31

pRBC characteristics

PCV ~ 80%shelf life 20 daysONLY RBCreadily available, low risk overload, reduced exposure to plasma antigens

32

What does plasma contain?

Protein (alb, globulins)Clotting factorsFFP within 6 hr-1yrFP >1yr--no longer has clotting factors

33

What does cryoprecipitate contain

vWf VIIIfibrinogenfibronectin

34

sequele of administering citrate containing blood products too quickly

chelation of Ca and clinical hypoCa

35

optional good products for vWF patients

cryoprecipitate (most effective)FFPplasma donors from dogs treated with desmopressin (DDAVP)

36

dose of DDAVP

1 mcg/kg SQ once before surgeryMOA: induces release of vWF

37

how many dog blood antigens

8 know canine blood antigens

38

how many dogs can tolerate a first blood transfusion

15% have reaction first time85% tolerate first transfusion fine

39

MOA of EACA

epsilon aminocaproic acidEACA binds lysine residues on fibrin-->BLOCKS activation of plasminogen to plasmin-->keeps clot longerantifibrinolytic used to treat greyhound bleeders

40

EACA and amputation in GHMarin 2012

5.7x more likely to bleed without EACA28% delayed post op bleeding GH

41

EACA and gonadectomy in GHMarin 2012

30% bleeding in placebo group/ 10% EACA groupEACA sign decr bleeding post op by increasing clot strength (TEG--MA)

42

feline blood typing

A--DSHB--persian, british, himalayanType A cats rarely have large quantities of antiB antibodiesType B cats OFTEN have STRONG antiA antibodies

43

Why is auto transfused blood not a dependable source of clotting factors

with hemorrhage into a body cavity, all clotting factors and fibrin are rapidly depleted

44

how to perform autotransfusion

mix aspirated blood with 10 ml of CPDA-1 or 3.8% citrate with 90 ml blood

45

anticoagulant used in blood transfusions

CPDA-1citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1

46

potential risks of human albumin transfusion

fatal acute or delayed hypersensitivityvolume overloadcoagulopathyantibody formation (avoid repeat exposures)

47

regulation of Na and serum osmolarity

Osmoreceptors/Baroreceptors sense incr osmolarity or hypovolemiastimulate ADH/Vasopressin releaseJG apparatus RAASincreases aldosteronerenal Na/water retention

48

causes of hypoNa

-hypervolemia (CHF, Nephrotic synd, severe liver dz, kidney failure-normovolemia (psychogenic PD, inappropriate ADH, ADH drugs, myxedema, hypotonic fluid admin-hypovolemia (GI loss--V,d, Third spacing, burns, renal loss--addisons, ADH)

49

correcting low Na too quickly leads to

demyelination and central pontine myelinolysisDO NOT EXCEED 0.5 mEq/L/hr

50

correcting hi Na too quickly

cerebral edemaDO NOT EXCEED 1 mEq/L/hr

51

causes of hyperNa

usually from free water losses--hypovol (GI loss--V,d, Third spacing, burns, renal loss, diuresis)--normovol (Diabetes insipidus, inadequate H2O, incr insensible losses)--hypervol (excessive salt ingestion, HTS, Cushings, hyperaldosterone)

52

calculation of a free water deficit

free water deficit (L) = 0.6 x KG x (Na present/Na normal-1)

53

normal resting membrane potential and cation in charge

intracellular K+--90mV inside the cell relative to outside the cell

54

regulation of body K

GIKidneyTranscellular shifts

55

list two fluids that contain acetate

Plasmalyte-148Norm-R

56

What are side effects of low oncotic pressure

negative effect on wound healingpredispose to bacterial translocationinterstitial edemadecrease tissue perfusionincrease distance for oxygen and nutrients to travel

57

when does K move from extracellular to intracellular

during presence of glucose, insulin, catecholamines, metabolic alkalosis

58

when does K move from IC to EC

during metabolic acidosis, hyperosmolarity

59

total body hypoK causes

decreased intake (insufficient diet, K depleted fluids)Increased losses (GI, Renal, drug induced diuretics, Penicillins, amino glycosides, hyperadrenocorticism/aldosteronism--mineralocorticoid excess)Translocation (alkalemia, insulin/glucose, TPN, catecholamines, hyperthyroid, HKPP)

60

define paradoxical aciduria

with GI loss of fluids with are K and Cl rich--> hypoK, hypoCl, hypoNa-->kidneys attempt to maintain Na and rid K,H-->worsens hypoK and metabolic alkalosis but H in urine (paradoxical aciduria)