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Flashcards in 6,8,10 Deck (39):
0

Which term describes soil formed by weathering of the underlying bedrock

Residual

1

What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agents in reddish, brownish and yellowish soils

Dust sizes grains of iron oxides

2

What portion of an angular, fracture bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?

The edges and corners

3

Which two factors speed up rates of chemical rxn and weathering in rocks and soils?

Warm temps, very moist

4

Clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering

Chemical

5

In terrain with steep hill slopes, which crop and cultivation technique will minimize soil erosion

Apples; land between trees is planted in grass and not cultivated

6

Which of the following best describes the dust bowl

Areas of severe wind erosion on the Great Plains, 1930s

7

Under similar warm, moist climatic conditions, why would basalt and gabbro generally have higher chemical weathering rates then rhyolite and granite

The ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject to oxidation and chemical breakdown

8

Which term best describes an accumulation of angular rock fragments at the base of a steep, bedrock slope or cliff

Talus slope

9

Which of the following best describes the process eluviation

Removal of very fine sizes silt and clay particles from the A and E horizons

10

In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely

At great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding

11

Amphibole is a foliated metamorphic rock composed principally of hornblende and plagioclase. How does it form?

By regional metamorphism of volcanic rocks such as andesite and basalt

12

What foliated, metamorphic is texturally intermediate between slate and schist

Phyllite

13

What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism

Heat from nearby magma body

14

What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks

Micas

15

What term describes the zones of contact metamorphism surrounding an intrusive magma body

Aureole

16

Which of the folllowing forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism

Schist

17

Which of the following lists the rocks in order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism

Slate, Phyllite, schist

18

Which of the following statements concerning slate is not true

Has abundant, coarse grained mica

19

T or f: partial melting is an important process in the formation of migmatites

True

20

___ is typically formed by metamorphism of a sandstone

Quartzite

21

Calcite is the main mineral constituent of the sedimentary rock limestone and the metamorphic rock marble

True

22

A graben is characterized by

Hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults

23

A Horst is

An uplifted block bounded by two normal faults

24

The michigan geologic map show older, Paleozoic strata( in roughly circular patterns) surrounding the cores area of Pennsylvania rocks,. What is this structure?

Basin

25

a ____ fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks

Strike slip

26

A reverse fault is one which

The hanging wall block has moved up relative to the footwall block along an insulated inclined fault

27

A sync line is __

Fold in which the strata dip toward the axis

28

A ___ is a defined, recognizable, mapable, rock unit with a known age

Formation

29

Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions

Cooler temps

30

The mountains and valleys of the basin and range province of the western untied states formed in response to

Tensionsal stress and normal fault movements

31

Which one of the following best describes the geology of the black hills region in South Dakota

An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks

32

Which one of the following is true for anticlines but not synclines

The seeker strata are buckled upward along the fold axis

33

__ are the products of horizontally directed, Tensionsal stresses

Normal faults

34

Along oblique slip faults, not blocks have horizontal and vertical components of movement

True

35

The oldest sedentary rock strata are exposed along the axial parts of deeply eroded anticlines

True

36

The Navajo and Dakota sandstones are

Mesozoic, sedimentary rock formation in Utah, Colorado, and neighboring states

37

Normal faults form in response to horizontal , Tensional stresses that stretch or elongate the rocks

True

38

The great Rift Valley of east Africa is characterized by ___

Mainly normal faulting as east Africa begins to fragment