Chapters 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1-3 Deck (42):
0

The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a

Craton

1

___ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past"

Uniformitarianism

2

___ was an important 18th century geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism

James Hutton

3

The currently accepted age of the Earth is

4.6 billion years

4

The asthenosphere is actually part of the ____ of the Earth.

Mantle

5

The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the __

Oceanic ridges

6

The ___ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.

Lithosphere

7

The __ proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from a rotating cloud of gases and dust.

Nebular hypothesis

8

A ___ is a well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations

Theory

9

The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ___

Solid iron-nickel alloy

10

The continental shelf is located

Landward of the continental slope

11

Active mountain belts are most likely to be found

Along the margins of continents

12

Name three sources of evidence as to the composition of the earths interior

Diamond bearing rocks
Slivers of crustal and mantle rocks now exposed at earths surface
Meteorites

13

The process by which rocks break down in place to produce soils and sediments

Weathering

14

True or false: continental selfs and stable platforms are part of the interior region known as a craton

True

15

True or false: internally the earth consists of spherically shells with different compositions and densities

True

16

Much of our modeling of the earths interior comes from the study of seismic waves

True

17

True or false. The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere

False

18

The former last Paleozoic super continent is known as

Pangaea

19

The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wagner could not___

Identify a mechanism capable of moving the continents

20

Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?

Tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America

21

In the early part of the 20th century, ___ argued forcefully for continental drift

Alfred Wegener

22

___ was a flora that was widely distributed throughout the once contiguous, late Paleozoic, Southern Hemisphere landmass?

Glossopteris

23

True or false. A late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa, and southeastern South America

True

24

Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide

Calcite

25

What best describes ferromagnesian silicates?

They are black to dark green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium

26

How do electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding

They can move relatively easily from atom to atom inside the mineral

27

Which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms

Covalent

28

The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surround by

4 oxygen atoms

29

All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

Silicon, oxygen

30

Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

Luster

31

What is the name given to an atom that gains or loses an electron in a chemical reaction

Ion

32

Which of the following minerals is a silicate?
Hematite
Halite
Calcite
Muscovite

Muscovite

33

Isotopes from the same element (atoms)

The atoms have different number if neutrons and the same number of protons

34

What element is most abundant in the earths crust by weight?

Oxygen

35

Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, for negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges

Ionic bonding

36

Hornblende and other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure

Double chains

37

Clays are a typical product if what?

Weathering

38

Which of the following will react readily with acids such as hydrochloric?
Quartz
Calcite
Diamond
Talc

Calcite

39

Which group of minerals is most abundant in the earths crust?

Silicates

40

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as

Cleavage

41

Which mineral is composed if silicon dioxide

Quartz