What is bleeding called after 24 weeks gestation?
Bleeding before 24 weeks is a sign of what?
threatened, inevitable etc.
Which report accounts for maternal deaths and is published every year?
At what gestational age does the placenta develop?
What is the function of the placenta?
Nutrient and metabolite exchange
What is an ante-partum haemorrhage?
PV bleeding from 2nd trimester (24 weeks) until the end of labour
What are some placental causes of APH?
Name four placental causes of ante-partum haemorrhage.
Name a uterine cause of ante-partum haemorrhage.
Name three cervical causes of ante-partum haemorrhage.
What is spotting?
Minor staining of blood on underwear or pads
What volumes of blood are lost in a
c) massive APH?
a) < 50ml
b) 50 - 1000ml
c) > 1000ml
What is placental abruption?
Separation of placenta from uterus BEFORE birth
What are the symptoms of placental abruption?
Continuous abdominal pain - not intermittent as in labour
What is the recurrence rate for placental abruption?
What does the uterus feel like on abdominal examination of a woman with placental abruption?
If you check for a foetal heartbeat in a woman with placental abruption and there is one, how is it managed?
Resuscitate the mother
If you check for a foetal heartbeat in a woman with placental abruption and there isn't one, how is it managed?
Resuscitate the mother
Spontaneous passage / manual removal of pregnancy? wasn't explained
How is placental abruption managed?
Which investigations can be used to determine foetal heart rate?
If a mother with placental abruption is pre-term, how is her baby delivered?
Either caesarean section
or artificial rupture of membranes and IOL
What rheu condition may cause placental abruption?
Treated with LMWH and low dose aspirin
What condition is caused by implantation of the placenta in the lower uterus?
What terms are used when the placenta lies
a) close to the internal os
b) over the internal os
of the cervix?
a) Low-lying placenta
b) Placenta praevia
What is the lower segment of the uterus?
Thinner, non-contractile part of the uterus which is close to the internal os
Where the placenta goes in low-lying placenta / praevia and where you cut in a caesarean section
What is a LSCS?
Lower segment Caesarean section
What percentage of ante-partum haemorrhages are caused by placenta praevia?
What percentage of deliveries are carried out by Caesarean section?
25 - 30%
What type of delivery is a risk factor for placenta praevia?
Which investigation picks up placenta praevia?
which is part of the reason they're routinely done at 12 and 20 weeks