1: Anatomy - Surgical incisions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1: Anatomy - Surgical incisions Deck (71)
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1

What

a) horizontal

b) vertical

incisions are most commonly carried out in obs & gynae?

a) Lower segment caesarean section

b) Laparotomy incision

2

At what level are Caesarean sections carried out?

2cm above pubic symphysis

measured as two finger breadths

3

On which line is a Caesarean incision made?

Suprapubic line

4

What are the three layers of abdominal fascia called?

Where are they found relative to the abdominal muscles?

Superficial - Camper's fascia, Scarpa's fascia; found superficial to external obliques

Deep - transversalis fascia; found deep to rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis

5

What are the four groups of abdominal wall muscles?

External obliques

Internal obliques

Rectus abdominis medially

Transversus abdominis laterally

6

What are the three layers of intercostal muscles?

External intercostals

Internal intercostals

Innermost intercostals

7

Which direction do the external oblique muscles run in?

Hands in pockets

Anterior direction

8

The external oblique muscles run in an (anterior / posterior) direction.

anterior direction

9

Which ribs do the external obliques attach to superiorly?

Ribs 5 - 11

10

Which structures do the external obliques attach to inferiorly?

Iliac crests

Pubic tubercle

Linea alba

11

What structure is a flattened aponeurosis found in the midline?

Linea alba

12

What structures are flattened aponeuroses found laterally?

Linea semilunaris

13

What is an aponeurosis?

Flattened tendon

14

The external obliques run in the same direction as which respiratory muscles?

External intercostals

15

Which direction do the internal obliques run in?

Posteriorly

i.e the opposite of external intercostals, remember hands in pockets

16

What fascia is found posteriorly?

Thoracolumbar fascia

17

Which abdominal muscles attach to the thoracolumbar fascia?

Internal obliques

Transversus abdominis

18

Which bony feature of the pelvis do all of the abdominal muscles attach to?

Iliac crest

19

Which flattened tendons make up the borders of rectus abdominis?

Linea alba in the midline

Linea semilunaris laterally

Tendinous intersections between the groups of muscles

20

What structures does the linea alba attach to superiorly and inferiorly?

Xiphoid process of the sternum superiorly

Pubic symphysis inferiorly

21

Which structure is made up of the combined aponeuroses of transversus abdominisexternal oblique and internal oblique?

Rectus sheathe

22

Is rectus abdominis part of the rectus sheathe?

No

As in it doesn't have an aponeurosis to contribute, it's just surrounded by the rectus sheathe

23

Transversus abdominis is described as a corset muscle - why?

Keeps the abdominal organs contained within the abdominal cavity

Force of gravity pushes all these muscles downwards, creating a need for support

24

What is the advantage of tendinous intersections between the muscle groups of rectus abdominis?

Prevents bowstringing

If rectus abdominis was one long muscle it would contract in a weird way

25

What horizontal line marks a change in the structure of the rectus sheathe?

Arcurate line

26

Where exactly is the arcurate line?

Halfway between umbilicus and pubic crest

27

Describe the structure of the rectus sheathe above and below the arcurate line.

Above acurate line:

external oblique anterior to rectus, internal oblique split into two leaflets, one anterior and one posterior to rectus, transversalis fascia posterior to rectus

Below arcurate line:

everything is anterior to rectus apart from transversalis fascia

This gets asked about in exams

28

Which muscle is always superficial to rectus abdominis in the rectus sheathe?

External oblique

29

Which muscle splits into anterior and posterior leaflets in the rectus sheathe above the acurate line?

Internal oblique

Anterior leaflet is superficial to rectus, posterior leaflet is deep to rectus

30

Describe the structure of the rectus sheathe above the arcurate line.

External oblique superficial to rectus

Internal oblique split into two leaflet - anterior leaflet superficial to rectus, posterior leaflet deep

Transversalis fascia deep to rectus