What is a team?
A collaboration of individuals who perceive themselves to be a group
- common purpose
- accepted roles
- voluntary membership
What is the difference between a team and a group?
A team has a common purpose and allocated membership
What are Tuckman’s 4 stages of forming teams?
What are the 3 key elements of the forming stage?
- Members act independently
- Members are on their best behavior
- Supervision is directive
What are the 3 key elements of the storming stage?
- Team addresses how they will function
- Storming can be resolved quickly or may result in conflict
- Supervisions more accessible but still directive
What are the 4 key elements of the norming stage?
- Members adjust their behaviour towards teamwork
- Rules and behaviours are agreed
- Trust and motivation build
- Supervisiors are more participative
What are the 2 risks of the norming stage?
Stifled creativity and stifled healthy dissent (groupthink)
What are the 3 key elements of the performing stage?
- Team members are independent and motivated
- Dissent is expected and channeled positively
- Supervisors are participative
What is the main risk associating with the performing stage?
Adjourning - group go on auto pilot if this stage runs too long
What are Peters and Waterman’s 4 main characteristics of successful teams?
- Small size
- Limited time on one task
- Voluntary membership
- Informal communication mechanisms
What is role theory?
A theory which discusses various considerations that influence how individuals carry out their roles and hence how effective the teams are
What are the 6 elements of role theory?
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Plant?
Creative, imaginative, solves problems
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Resource Investigator?
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Chairman/Co-ordinator?
Ensure all are contributing and acting fairly
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Shaper?
Loves challenge and thrives on pressure, can overcome obstacles
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Monitor-Evaluator?
Sees all options and judges accurately
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Team Worker?
Ensures interpersonal relations are maintained
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Company Worker?
Practical thinker, creates systems and processes
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Completer Finisher?
Detail person, focus on quality and timeliness
Concerning Belbin’s 8 roles in an effective team, what is a Specialist?
Brings specialist knowledge to the team
What was Vail’s contribution to team performance theory?
Teams are like systems, they must have clear broad aims, clear objectives, strong leadership and development of new methodologies
What is motivation?
The urge to take action to achieve something or to avoid something
What was Taylor’s contribution to motivation theory?
Humans are rational economic beings, who want to develop and get paid
What were Schein’s 4 categories of ‘motivated man’?
- Rational Economic Man
- Social man
- Self actualizing man
- Complex man
What was Douglas McGregor’s contribution to motivation theory?
What does a Theory X manager believe vs a Theory Y manager?
People dislike work and must be forced, vs people will seek to perform well and achieve objectives
What was Maslow’s contribution to motivation theory?
The Hierarchy of needs
What are the 5 levels of the Hierarchy of Needs?
- Self Esteem
- Self Actualisation
What was Herzberg’s contribution to motivation theory?
What are hygiene factors?
Factors that do not give satisfaction or motivation but who’s absence will cause dissatisfaction
What are motivating factors?
Factors which can motivate when present
How does Hertzberg suggest that motivation can be increased?
What are the three approaches to job redesign?
- Job rotation (swapping tasks)
- Job enlargement (more of the same)
- Job enrichment (depth)
What is Hackman and Oldham’s contribution to management theory?
Motivating Potential Score (MPS)
What are the 5 job characteristics measured in MPS scoring?
- Skill variety
- Task identity
- Task significance
What is equity theory?
People will be more motivated if they feel they are being treated fairly
What are the 4 forms of feedback?
What are the 3 conditions for effective feedback?
What is it called when some of the meaning of ‘transmission’ in communication is lost?
What are the 3 main benefits of digital communication?
- Communication is recorded
- Can be shared widely so all can participate
- Lack of formality can improve communication
What are the 4 main drawbacks of digital communication?
- Reduced physical contact loses visual cues
- Mistakes are recorded permanently
- Can take unnecessary time to review
- Misunderstandings can occur
What is negotiation?
The process of communicating with the aim of reaching a mutual agreement
What are the 4 phases of negotiation?
What are the 3 main features of the preparation phase of negotiation?
- Learn all information and analyze the problem
- Establish rapport
- Set goals and expectations
- Establish negotiation plan and budget
What are the 2 main features of the opening phase of negotiation?
- Establish logistics
2. Opening offers
What are the 3 main features of the bargaining phase of negotiation?
- Subsequent offers
- Concessions and resolution
What are the 3 main features of the closing phase of negotiation?
- Emotional closure
What is persuasion?
Influencing the other party to accept your point of view
What is compromise?
Both parties moving closer towards each others position
What are Cialdini’s 6 weapons of influence?
- Commitment and Consistency
- Social proof
What are Thomas-Kilmann’s 5 strategies for handling disputes and conflict?
- Avoiding (low co-operation, low assertiveness)
- Competing (low co-operation, high assertiveness)
- Accommodating (high co-operation, low assertiveness)
- Collaborative (high co-operation, high assertiveness)
- Compromising (middle ground)
What are Mainwaring’s 4 strategies for handling conflict?
- Stimulation and orchestration
What is counselling?
One to one individual sessions between an employee and counsellor
What is mediation?
An informal process in which an impartial person facilities discussion and negotiation between the two conflicting parties
According to Charles Handy, what are 4 key environmental strategies to resolve conflict?
- Agree objectives
- Strengthen culture
- Improve communication
- Clear roles
According to Charles Handy, what are 4 key regulation strategies to resolve conflict?
- Rules and procedures
- Area and process for conflict resolution
- Separate physically
What are Cyert and March’s 4 strategies for resolving stakeholder conflict?
- Sequential attention
- Side payments
- Exercise of power