6 Opportunistic Infections Moscatello Flashcards Preview

Hematology-Oncology Exam 2 > 6 Opportunistic Infections Moscatello > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6 Opportunistic Infections Moscatello Deck (29):
1

___ deficiencies are inherited or congenital diseases of the immune system.

PRIMARY deficiencies are inherited or congenital diseases of the immune system.

2

___ deficiencies are caused by an underlying disease state or results from treatment of a specific disease.

SECONDARY deficiencies are caused by an underlying disease state or results from treatment of a specific disease.

3

Complement and phagocytic deficiencies are specific types of ___ deficiency.

Complement and phagocytic deficiencies are a specific type of PRIMARY deficiency.

4

C3 deficiency. The body is unable to produce C3 protein and prevents the body's ability to ___ pathogens.

The body is unable to produce C3 protein and prevents the body's ability to CLEAR pathogens.

5

C3 deficiency. Recall, that C3 is converted into C3a and C3b. C3b is a(n)___ which is deposited on the pathogen culler membrane. A phagocyte has a C3b ___ and binds the pathogen.

Recall, the C3 is converted into C3a and C3b. C3b is an OPSONIN which is deposited on the pathogen cellular membrane. A phagocyte has a C3b RECEPTOR and binds the pathogen.

6

Enterobacteriaceae, Gram-positive cocci, Hamophilus influenza, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause ___ deficiency.

Enterobacteriaceae, Gram-positive cocci, Hamophilus influenza, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause C3 deficiency.

7

MAC complex deficiency. C5-C9 proteins assemble together to form the ___ complex on the surface of a pathogen. ___ fluids enter through the complex causing the pathogen to ___.

C5-C9 proteins assemble together to form the MEMBRANE ATTACK complex on the surface of a pathogen. EXTRACELLULAR fluids enter through the complex causing the pathogen to LYSE.

8

MAC complex deficiency. Recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by ____ meningitides indicates a C5-C9 deficiency.

Recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by NEISSERIA meningitides indicates a C5-C9 deficiency.

9

MAC complex deficiency. Neisseria meningitides contains ___ on its cellular membrane. Complement may squeeze through these molecules and ___ the organism.

Neisseria meningitides contains LIPPOLIGOSACCHARIDE on its cellular membrane. Complement may squeeze through these molecules and LYSE the organism.

10

Phagocytic Deficiencies. Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by an ___ oxidase deficiency in macrophages. As a result, the phagocytic cell, fails to degrade the organism in the phagosome.

Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by an NADPH oxidase deficiency in macrophages. As a result, the phagocytic cell, fails to degrade the organism in the phagosome.

11

Phagocytic Deficiencies. A leukocyte ___ deficiency refers to the inability of a phagocytic white blood cell to bind to a pathogen.

A leukocyte ADHESION deficiency refers to the ability of a phagocytic white blood cell to bind to a pathogen.

12

Burn Wound Infections are primarily caused by ____.

Burn Wound Infections are primarily caused by Pseudomonas aerginsosa.

13

E. coli, K. pneumonia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yeast, Enterococci, and S. epidermidis are ___ related infections.

E. coli, K. pneumonia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yeast, Enterococci, and S. epidermidis are CATHETER related infections.

14

Surgery. ___ is the most common and most important infection in solid organ transplantation and causes an ___ pneumonitis.

CMV is the most common and most important infection is solid organ transplantation and causes an INTERSTITIAL pneumonitis.

15

X-linked Agammaglobulinemia. There are no ___ cells in the periphery. Infections with ___ organisms, including S. pneumonia and H. influenza are common.

There are no B CELLS in the periphery. Infections with ENCAPSULATED organisms, including S. pneumonia and H. influenza are common.

16

Hyper IgM Syndrome. The ___ receptor on the B cell is mutated and prevents the B cell from binding to a T cell. As a result, the B cell cannot undergo class switching. The B cell continuously secretes IgM antibody.

The CD 40 receptor on the B cell is mutated and prevents the B cell from binding to a T cell. As a result, the B cell cannot undergo class switching. The B cell continuously secretes IgM antibody.

17

DiGeorge Syndrome. T cells cannot ____ or become ___ because the thymus is absent.

T cells cannot MATURE or become EDUCATED because the thymus is absent.

18

HIV/AIDS. Respiratory infections by S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are greater than ___.

Respiratory infections by S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are greater than 200cells/mL.

19

HIV/AIDS. Respiratory infections by Pneumocystitis kiroveci, Aspergillosis, S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are between ___ and ___ cells/mL.

Respiratory infections by Pneumocystitis kiroveci, Aspergillosis, S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are between 50 and 200 cells/mL.

20

HIV/AIDS. Respiratory infections by CMV, Pneumocystitis kiroveci, Aspergillosis, S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are below ___ cells/mL.

Respiratory infections by CMV, Pneumocystitis kiroveci, Aspergillosis, S. pneumonia, H.influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are common when CD4T cell levels are below 50 cells/mL.

21

HIV/AIDS. Crytococcus neoformans causes a ___ infection.

Crytococcus neoformans causes a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM infection.

22

CMV is the most common organism associated with infection after a ___ or ___. An ___ inclusion is hallmark for this condition.

CMV is the most common organism associated with infection after a TRANSPLANT or SURGERY. An OWL EYE inclusion is hallmark for this condition.

23

Pneumocystis jiroveci causes Pneymocystis ___ after surgery or transplantation in HIV/AIDS patients. The organism looks like ___ helmets or ___ on microscopic examination.

Pneumocystis jiroveci causes Pneymocystis PNEUMONIA after surgery or transplantation. The organism looks like DENTED helmets or CONDOMS on microscopic examination.

24

Cryptospordium parvium is associated with persistent ___ diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients. ___ oocytes are seen upon stool examination.

Cryptospordium parvium is associated with persistent WATERY diarrhea. ACID FAST oocytes are seen upon stool examination.

25

Mycobacterium ___ is associated with fever, rigors, night sweats, and diarrhea, in HIV/AIDS patients. An ___ bacilli is seen upon microscopic examination. The CD4+ count is typically around 75 cells/mL.

Mycobacterium AVIUM is associated with fever, rigors, night sweats, and diarrhea, in HIV/AIDS patients. An ACID FAST bacilli is seen upon microscopic examination. The CD4+ count is typically around 75 cells/mL.

26

Toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are associated with causing headaches, in HIV/AIDS patients. ___ is associated with ring enhancing lesions. ___ is an encapsulated yeast which stains positive for India Ink.

Toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are associated with causing headaches, in HIV/AIDS patients. TOXOPLASMOSIS is associated with ring enhancing lesions. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS is an encapsulated yeast which stains positive for India Ink.

27

Bartonella henselae is associated with rashes which look similar to ___ Sarcoma in HIV/AIDS patients.

Bartonella henselae is associated with rashes which look similar to KAPOSI SARCOMA in HIV/AIDS patients.

28

Streptococcus ___ is an encapsulated gram ____ cocci associated with fever, tachycardia, and hypotension in sickle cell patients. This organism is ___ hemolytic on blood agar.

Streptococcus PNEUMONIAE is an encapsulated gram POSITIVE cocci associated with fever, tachycardia, and hypotension in sickle cell patients. This organism is ALPHA hemolytic on blood agar.

29

In immunocompromised patients, Aspergillosis and Mucor are associated with a productive cough and respiratory problems. ___ is associated with a septated hyphae branching at 45 degrees. ___ is associated with non-septated hyphae branching at 90 degrees and is described as "ribbon like".

ASPERGILLOSIS is associated with a septated hyphae branching at 45 degrees. MUCOR is associated with non-septated hyphae branching at 90 degrees and is described as "ribbon like"