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Flashcards in 8 Retroviruses Keller Deck (20):
1

HTVL-1 Virus. Causes a lymphoproliferative T cell ___. Results in the expansion of T cells which only recognize ___ specific antigen. Associated with ___.

HTVL-1 virus causes a lymphoproliferative T cell LEUKEMIA. Results in the expansion of T cell which only recognize ONE specific antigen. Virus is associated with IV DRUG USERS.

2

HTVL-1 Virus. ___ T cells are diagnostic.

CLOVERLEAF T cells are diagnostic.

3

HIV. Enveloped, positive-strand___ virus and contains an ___ dependent ___ polymerase.

HIV is an enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus and contains and RNA dependent DNA polymerase.

4

HIV. Infects ___ cells and prevents ___ from becoming active and prevents proliferation.

Infects CD4+ cells and prevents CD8 cells from becoming active and prevents proliferation.

5

HIV. Transmission occurs via ___ contact, ___ users, and ___ to child. ___ transmission is the #1 cause of worldwide infection. ___ transmission is the #1 cause of US infection.

Transmission occurs via SEXUAL contact, IV DRUG users, and MOTHER to child. HETEROSEXUAL transmission is the #1 cause of worldwide infections. HOMOSEXUAL Transmission is the #1 cause of the US infection.

6

HIV. During ___, HIV virus enters the dendritic cells. The dendritic cell presents the HIV antigen to the ___ cell resulting in infection.

During MICRO ABRASIONS, HIV virus enters the dendritic cells. The dendritic cell presents the HIV antigen to the CD4+ cell resulting in infection.

7

HIV. Diagnosis includes ___ rapid screening tests followed by a ___ blot. The ___ is the confirmatory test and detects the viral ___ antigen.

Diagnosis includes TWO rapid screening tests followed by a WESTERN blot. The WESTERN BLOT is the confirmatory test and detects the viral P24 antigen.

8

HIV. The genome contains one large ___ sequence and requires a viral ___ to cleave this large sequence into smaller individual components.

The genome contains one large PEPTIDE sequence and requires a viral PROTEASE to cleave this large sequence into smaller individual components.

9

HIV. The ___ polymerase reverse transcribes RNA into DNA.

The RNA DEPENDENT DNA POLYMERASE reverse transcribes viral RNA into viral DNA.

10

HIV. The ___ enzyme incorporates viral DNA into host genome.

The INTEGRASE enzyme incorporates viral DNA into host genome.

11

HIV. The ___ enzyme cleaves the newly synthesized viral protein into individual proteins which are assembled into new viral particles.

The PROTEASE enzyme cleaves the newly synthesized viral protein into individual proteins which are assembled into new viral proteins.

12

HIV. The ___ accessory protein promotes the progression from HIV to AIDS.

The NEFT accessory protein promotes the progression from HIV to AIDS.

13

HIV. Tropism means that HIV uses different ___ receptor to enter different cells.

Tropism means that HIV uses different CELLULAR receptors to enter different cells.

14

HIV. Binds to CD4 and CXCR4 on ___ cells and binds to CD4 and CC5R on ___. CXCR4 and CC5R are classified as ___ receptors.

HIV. Binds to CD4 and CXCR4 on T cells and binds to CD4 and CC5R on MACROPHAGES. CXCR4 and CC5R are classified as CHEMOKINE receptors.

15

HIV. Glycoprotein 120 is the ___ protein. Glycoprotein 41 is the __ protein.

Glycoprotein 120 is the BINDING protein and Glycoprotein 41 is the FUSION protein.

16

HIV. After HIV enters the helper T cell or macrophages, its reverse transcriptase, integrate, and protease are released into the ___. At this location, RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA.

After HIV enters the helper T cell or macrophages, its reverse transcriptase, integrate, and protease are released into the CYTOPLASM. At this location, RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA.

17

HIV. Viral ___ travels to the nucleus and incorporates itself into the T-cell genome via the __ enzyme. A patient is "infected" when this step happens.

Viral DNA travels to the nucleus and incorporates itself into the T-cell genome via the INTEGRASE enzyme. A patient is "infected" when this step happens.

18

HIV. Stage 1 is known as the __ infection phase. The p24 antigen levels are ___ and then drastically ___. Anti-HIV antibodies steadily __ during this time.

Stage 1 is known as the ACUTE infection phase. The p24 antigen levels are INCREASED and then drastically DECREASE. Anti-HIV antibodies steadily INCREASE during this time.

19

Stage 2 is known as the ___ immune deficiency phase. The ____ related complex occurs which includes chronic diarrhea, muscle wasting, and fatigue.

Stage 2 is known as the SUBCLINICAL immune deficiency phase. The AIDS related complex occurs which includes chronic diarrhea, muscle easting, and fatigue.

20

Stage 3 is known as the ___ deficiency phase. If the CD4 T cells fall below 200 cells/mL, this is defined as ___.

Stage 3 is known as the SYSTEMIC IMMUNE deficiency phase. If the CD4T cells fall below 200 cells/mL, this is defined as AIDS.