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Difference between emotional reflection of feeling and cognitive paraphrasing/summarzing

The first focuses on reflecting feeing, naming them, repeating them to client. Paraphrasing/Summarazing fusses on words and concepts.


primary emotions

sad, mad glad, scared, disgust, surprise


where are "negative" emotions located

limbic system


Parts of the Limbic Brain

Amygdala, Prefrontal Cortex (PFC), Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, pituitary, and Adrenal Glands (HPA)



Emotional and cognitive driver, takes information from the senses and passes it on. The thalamus is a key factor in distributing observations, thoughts, experiences. Amygdala is closely related to the total limbic system/prefrontal cortex


Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)

Close connection with amygdala. PFC labels emotions as feelings and when possible regulates action. In times of emergency the amygdala overrides the PFC and emotional regulation breaks down.



Memory center that holds and distributes information throughout the brain. Both cognitive and emotional decisions are related to short and long term membory


Hypothamus, Pitutitary, and rental glands (HPA)

Important for understanding the physical role of emotion, they produce hormones for our brain and body. Hypothamus releases hormones stimulated by the amygdala, pituitary stimulates the adrenals at the top of the kidney, in turn he adrenals produce cortisol which is essential for learning. However too much cortisol can be delivered to the brain with trauma.


location of positive emotional experiences

left prefrontal cortex


social emotions that come from primary emotions

puzzled, sympathy, embarrassment, guilt, pride, jealousy, gratitude admiration, indication, contempt


Difference between basic emotions and social one

basic emotions seem to be universal but social emotions appear to come from one's community, culture, family members and peers


Skill Set for Reflection Feeling

1) Sentence Stem
2) Feeling Label
3) Context or brief paraphrase
4) Tense and Immediacy
5) Checkout
6. Bring out positive emotional stories and strengths


micro/macro nonverbals

small vs large nonverbal. Ones that are easy to identify and others that are not


glad words

pleased, happy, love, contented, together, excited, delighted, pleasure