6.3 & 6.3.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6.3 & 6.3.1 Deck (20):
1

Operant conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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Operant behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment producing consequences

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Law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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Operant chamber

In operant conditioning Research A chamber (also known as a skinner box) containing a bar see that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rates of bar pressing or key pressing

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Shaping

And operant conditioning a procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Discriminative stimulus

In operant conditioning A stimulus that elicts A response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli bit associated with reinforcement)

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Reinforcer

In operant conditioning any the event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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Positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response

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Negative reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response (note: negative reinforcement is not a punishment)

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Primary reinforcer

An innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need

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Conditioned reinforcer

A stimulus that games it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer

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Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results and slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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Fixed-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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Variable-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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Fixed interval schedule

In operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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Variable-Interval schedule

In operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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Punishment

And event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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Punishment tell you what _____ to do; reinforcement tell you ___ do

Not; what to

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Respondent behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus