# 6.3: Gas exchange in fish Flashcards

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1
Q

What does cavity mean?

A

Cavity means open space

2
Q

There are how many gill filaments in each gill?

A

There are hundreds of gill filaments in each gill

3
Q

There are hundreds of gill filaments in each gill and gill filaments are what?

A

There are hundreds of gills in each gill filament and gill filaments are stacked up

4
Q

There are hundreds of gill filaments in each gill and gill filaments are stacked up.
Gill filaments are what?

A

Gill filaments are feather-like

5
Q

There are hundreds of gill filaments in each gill and gill filaments are stacked up.
Gill filaments are feather-like.
There are lots of what on each gill filament?

A

There are lots of lamellae on each gill filament

6
Q

There are hundreds of gill filaments in each gill and gill filaments are stacked up.
Gill filaments are feather-like.
There are lots of lamellae on each gill filament.
What do lamellae do?

A

Lamellae increase the surface area of the gills

7
Q

Why do fish need an exchange surface?

A

Fish need an exchange surface, because they have a small SA:V ratio

8
Q

Where do fish get their oxygen from?

A

Fish get their oxygen from the water

9
Q

What is the exchange surface for fish called?

A

The exchange surface for fish is called gills

10
Q

Fish have a what outer covering?

A

Fish have:
1. A waterproof
2. Therefore a gas-tight
outer covering

11
Q

Fish have a waterproof and therefore a gas-tight outer covering.
Being relatively large, they also have a small SA:V ratio.
Their body surface is therefore not adequate to supply and remove their respiratory gases and so, like insects and humans, they have evolved a specialised internal gas exchange surface - gills.
Where are the gills located?

A

The gills are located within the body of the fish, behind the head

12
Q

Fish have a waterproof and therefore a gas-tight outer covering.
Being relatively large, they also have a small SA:V ratio.
Their body surface is therefore not adequate to supply and remove their respiratory gases and so, like insects and humans, they have evolved a specialised internal gas exchange surface - gills.
The gills are located within the body of the fish, behind the head.
What are gills made up of?

A

Gills are made up of gill filaments

13
Q

The structure of the gills:
The gills are located within the body of the fish, behind the head.
Gills are made up of gill filaments.
The gill filaments are stacked.
At right angles to the gill filaments are gill lamellae, which increase the surface area of what?

A

At right angles to the gill filaments are gill lamellae, which increase the surface area of the gills

14
Q

The structure of the gills:
The gills are located within the body of the fish, behind the head.
Gills are made up of gill filaments.
The gill filaments are stacked.
At right angles to the gill filaments are gill lamellae, which increase the surface area of the gills.
Water is taken in through the mouth and forced where?

A

Water is taken in through the mouth and forced:

1. Over the gills
2. Out through an opening on each side of the body
15
Q

The structure of the gills:
The gills are located within the body of the fish, behind the head.
Gills are made up of gill filaments.
The gill filaments are stacked.
At right angles to the gill filaments are gill lamellae, which increase the surface area of the gills.
Water is taken in through the mouth and forced over the gills and out through an opening on each side of the body, called what?

A

Water is taken in through the mouth and forced:
1. Over the gills
2. Out through an opening on each side of the body
,called the operculum flaps

16
Q

One side of the gills has gill filaments and the other side is the gill what with a what?

A

One side of the gills has gill filaments and the other side is the gill arch with a bony bar

17
Q

Why is countercurrent flow important?

A

Countercurrent flow is important for ensuring that the maximum possible gas exchange is achieved

18
Q

Countercurrent flow is important for ensuring that the maximum possible gas exchange is achieved.
If the water and blood flowed in the same direction (what), then far less gas exchange would take place?

A

If the water and blood flowed in the same direction (parallel flow), then far less gas exchange would take place

19
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its what?

A

This arrangement means that blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen

20
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, what takes places?

A

Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place

21
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
2. Blood with little oxygen in it meets water that has had most, but not all, of its oxygen removed.
Again, what takes place?

A

Again, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place

22
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
2. Blood with little oxygen in it meets water that has had most, but not all, of its oxygen removed.
Again, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
As a result, what is maintained across the entire width of the gill lamellae?

A

As a result, a diffusion gradient for oxygen uptake is maintained across the entire width of the gill lamellae

23
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
2. Blood with little oxygen in it meets water that has had most, but not all, of its oxygen removed.
Again, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
As a result, a diffusion gradient for oxygen uptake is maintained across the entire width of the gill lamellae.
In this way, about what % of the oxygen available in the water is absorbed into the blood of the fish?

A

In this way, about 80 - 90% of the oxygen available in the water is absorbed into the blood of the fish

24
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
2. Blood with little oxygen in it meets water that has had most, but not all, of its oxygen removed.
Again, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
As a result, a diffusion gradient for oxygen uptake is maintained across the entire width of the gill lamellae.
In this way, about 80 - 90% of the oxygen available in the water is absorbed into the blood of the fish.
If the flow of water and blood had been in the same direction (parallel flow), the diffusion gradient would only be maintained across what?

A

If the flow of:

1. Water
2. Blood had been in the same direction (parallel flow), the diffusion gradient would only be maintained across part of the length of the gill lamellae
25
Q

The essential feature of the countercurrent exchange system is that the blood and the water that flow over the gill lamellae do so in opposite directions.
This arrangement means that:
1. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water, which has its maximum concentration of oxygen.
Therefore, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
2. Blood with little oxygen in it meets water that has had most, but not all, of its oxygen removed.
Again, diffusion of oxygen from the water to the blood takes place.
As a result, a diffusion gradient for oxygen uptake is maintained across the entire width of the gill lamellae.
In this way, about 80 - 90% of the oxygen available in the water is absorbed into the blood of the fish.
If the flow of water and blood had been in the same direction (parallel flow), the diffusion gradient would only be maintained across part of the length of the gill lamellae and only what % of the available oxygen would be absorbed by the blood?

A

If the flow of water and blood had been in the same direction (parallel flow):

1. The diffusion gradient would only be maintained across part of the length of the gill lamellae
2. Only 50% of the available oxygen would be absorbed by the blood
26
Q

What are the parts of a fish called?

A

The parts of a fish are called the:

1. Mouth
2. Gill cover
3. Gills
27
Q

The parts of a fish are called the mouth, the gill cover and the gills.
What is the other name for the gill cover?

A

The other name for the gill cover is the operculum

28
Q

What does the operculum do?

A

The operculum protects the gills

29
Q

What provide a large SA:V ratio in gills?

A

Lots of tiny feathery projections called lamellae provide a large SA:V ratio in gills

30
Q

What colour are the lamellae?

A

The lamellae are red

31
Q

The lamellae are red, why?

A

The lamellae are red, because of their incredibly rich blood supply

32
Q

What happens to the lamellae when they are out of the water?

A

The lamellae collapse down when they are out of the water

33
Q

In parallel flow, the blood and the water flow in the same direction.
They would reach what?

A

They would reach equilibrium

34
Q

Countercurrent flow is important, because it maintains what throughout the gills and all of the gill lamellae?

A

Countercurrent flow is important, because it maintains a favourable concentration gradient throughout:

1. The gills
2. All of the gill lamellae
35
Q

Example of a highly active fish

A

An example of a highly active fish is mackerel

36
Q

How to highly active fish swim?

A

Highly active fish swim with their mouths open

37
Q

Highly active fish swim with their mouths open, why?

A

Highly active fish swim with their mouths open, because it keeps oxygen going into their gills

38
Q

Highly active fish swim with their mouths open, because it keeps oxygen going into their gills.
What is this called?

A

This is called ram ventilation

39
Q

Gills have a rich what?

A

Gills have a rich blood supply