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1
Q

excessive water ingestion within a few hours (10 to 20 liters) within a few hours dilutes the sodium concentration of the blood and contributes to a danger condition known as

A

hyponatremia

2
Q

what is central to the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure; homeostasis of bodily fluids

A

kidneys

3
Q

to control the movement of water, the cells direct the movement of the major minerals

A

sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and sulfur

4
Q

the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used

A

bioavailability

5
Q

the american heart association goal is to lower blood pressure by reducing sodium intake to

A

less than 1500 milligrams a day

6
Q

DASH diet - what does it stand for

A

dietary approaches to stop hypertension

7
Q

what is dash diet effective in

A

lowering blood pressure

8
Q

only 1 percent of calcium goes to

A

body fluids

9
Q

other 99 percent of calcium goes to

A

bones and teeth

10
Q

what does calcium do in bones

A

provides rigid framework that holds the body upright

11
Q

what other things calcium does

A

maintain blood pressure, blood clotting, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning

12
Q

calcium role

A

serves as calcium bank, offering a readily available source of calcium to body fluids should a drop in blood calcium occur

13
Q

when there is low blood calcium, what stimulates CALCIUM reabsorption from kidneys into blood

A

vitamin D

14
Q

what does vitamin D do in intestines associated with low blood calcium- to try to up calcium

A

enhances calcium absorption in intestines

15
Q

what does vit D do in bones to help raise blood calcium

A

stimulates osteoclast cells to break down bone, releasing calcium into blood

16
Q

vitamin D helps to make the what needed for calcium absorption

A

calcium-binding protein

17
Q

factors that enhance nonheme iron absorption

A

MFP factor, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), acids (citric and lactic), and sugars(fructose)

18
Q

can serve as a cofactor to enzymes involved in the numerous oxidation-reduction reactions that commonly occur in all cells

A

iron

19
Q

enzymes involved in making amino acids, collagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters all require

A

iron

20
Q

forms a part of electron carriers that participate in etc

A

iron

21
Q

in red blood cells; where iron is found

A

hemoglobin

22
Q

in muscle cells; where iron is found

A

myoglobin

23
Q

who does iron deficiency affect the most

A

toddlers, adolescent girls, and women of childbearing age

24
Q

the craving and consumption of ice, chalk, starch , and other nonfood substances; iron deficiency

A

pica

25
Q

what is the worlds major source of iodine

A

the ocean

26
Q

other sources of iodine

A

kelp, seafood, water, sea mist, salt that is iodized

27
Q

eating as few a day as what improves selenium status

A

2 brazil nuts

28
Q

what is a disease of copper deficiency

A

menkes disease

29
Q

what is a disease of copper toxicity

A

wilson’s disease

30
Q

the intestinal cells absorb copper, but cannot release it into circulation causing life threatening deficiency

A

menkes disease

31
Q

copper accumulates in the liver and brain, creating a life-threatening toxicity

A

wilson’s disease

32
Q

most of manganese can be found in the bones and metabolically active organs such as the

A

liver kidney and pancreas

33
Q

present in virtually all soils, water supplies, plants, and animals; drinking water(if fluoridated), tea, seafood

A

fluoride

34
Q

to gain muscle tissue, protein synthesis must be greater than degradation called

A

hypertrophy

35
Q

becoming smaller; with regard to muscles, a decrease in size and strength because of disuse, undernutrition, or wasting disease; when protein degradation if greater than synthesis

A

atrophy

36
Q

the ability of muscles to work against resistance

A

muscle strength

37
Q

strength example exercises

A

pull-ups, pushups situps weightlifting pilates

38
Q

flexibility example exercises

A

yoga

39
Q

aerobic training example excersises

A

running, dancing, swimming, inline skating, power walking, etc

40
Q

the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted

A

muscle endurance

41
Q

the maximum rate of oxygen composition by an individual at sea level

A

VO2 max

42
Q

combine high resistance(heavy weight) with a low number of reps (8-12)

A

muscle strength

43
Q

combine moderate resistance (light to medium weight) with high velocity (as fast as safely possible)

A

muscle power

44
Q

combine less resistance (lighter weight) with more reps (15-20)

A

muscle endurance

45
Q

phosphagen system (creatine phosphate) fuel source

A

ATP-CP immediate availability 10 secs

46
Q

activity example for phosphagen system

A

100 meter dash

47
Q

fuel source for lactic acid system

A

ATP from carbohydrate (anaerobic glycolysis)

48
Q

activity example for lactic acid

A

400 meter run, 100 meter swim, gymnastics

49
Q

aerobic system of high intensity fuel source

A

ATP from carbs (glycolysis and TCA cycle)

50
Q

aerobic system of moderate intensity fuel source

A

ATP from fat (fatty acid oxidation and TCA cycle)

51
Q

activity example of aerobic high intensity

A

cycling, running

52
Q

activity example of aerobic moderate intensity

A

hiking

53
Q

training the muscles to store as much glycogen as they can beyond normal capacity, while supplying the dietary glucose to enable them to do so

A

carbohydrate loading

54
Q

a potent antioxidant that vigorously defends cell membranes against the oxidative damage of free radicals

A

vitamin E

55
Q

a transient condition of low hemoglobin in the blood associated with the early stages of sports training or other strenuous activity

A

sports anemia

56
Q

the red blood cells do not diminish in size or number as in anemia, so the oxygen carrying capacity is not hindered

A

sports anemia

57
Q

an adaptive temporary response to endurance training; does not require iron supplementation,

A

sports anemia

58
Q

dehydrations first symptom is

A

fatigue

59
Q

dehydration fatigue- a water loss of greater than what percent of body weight can reduce a persons capacity to do muscular work

A

2 percent

60
Q

with a water loss of what percent is a person likely to collapse

A

7 percent

61
Q

a water loss of of 2 percent in a person weighing 150 pounds is equal to

A

3 pounds

62
Q

a water loss of 7 percent is equal to

A

10.5 pounds

63
Q

the body heat builds up and triggers maximum sweating, but without sweat evaporation, little cooling takes place; in a humid environment, sweat does not evaporate well bc the surrounding air is already laden with water

A

hyperthermia

64
Q

low body temp; below normal

A

hypothermia

65
Q

should include plenty of fluids and be light and easy to digest

A

pre game meal

66
Q

should provide between 300 and 800 kcal

A

pre game meal

67
Q

should include carb-rich food (bread, potatoes, pasta and fruit juices and it should end 3 to 4 hours before competition

A

pre game meal

68
Q

the organ that develops inside the uterus early in pregnancy, through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen and returns carbon dioxide and other waste products to be excreted; metabolically an active organ

A

placenta

69
Q

malformations of the brain, spinal cord, or both during embryonic development that often results in lifelong disabilities or death

A

neural tube defects

70
Q

no brain; the upper end of the neural tube fails to close

A

anencephaly

71
Q

split brain; incomplete closure of the spinal cord and its bony encasement; most common neural defects

A

spina bifida

72
Q

what is weight gain for underweight women (BMI<18.5)

A

28 to 40 pounds

73
Q

weight gain for health weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9)

A

25-35 pounds

74
Q

weight gain for overweight women (BMI 25.0-29.9)

A

15-25 pounds

75
Q

weight gain for obese women (BMI >30)

A

11 to 20 pounds

76
Q

what can staying active while pregnant do

A

improves cardiovascular fitness, limit excessive weight gain, prevent or manage gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension, and reduce stress

77
Q

after the first trimester, energy needs of pregnant women are greater than those that are not pregnant an

A

energy needs while pregnant

78
Q

how many additional kcal in second trimester

A

340

79
Q

how many additional kcal in third trimester

A

450

80
Q

low infant birthweight

A

5 1/2 pounds or less

81
Q

what does WIC stand for

A

Women, infants and children

82
Q

provides nutrition education and nutritious foods to infants, children to age 5 and pregnant of breast feeding women who qualify financially and have a high risk of medical or nutritious problems

A

WIC

83
Q

glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy

A

gestational diabetes

84
Q

alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause the irreversible mental and physical retardation of fetus

A

fetal alcohol syndrome

85
Q

out of all the leading causes of mental retardation, which is the only that are preventable

A

FAS

86
Q

to produce adequate supply of milk, a woman needs extra energy almost how many kcal per day above regular need during the first 6 months of lactation

A

500 kcal

87
Q

to meet the 500 kcal goal, she can eat an extra how many kcal of food each day during the first 6 months of lactation

A

330 kcal

88
Q

the what can provide the rest of energy for laction

A

fat reserves from pregnancy

89
Q

most women need at least how many kcal a day to receive all the nutrients required for successful lactation

A

1800 kcal

90
Q

the recommendation for total water during lactation is

A

3.8 liters per day (13 cups)

91
Q

what is a supplement that breast feeding moms may need

A

iron

92
Q

what provides infant formula at no cost

A

WIC

93
Q

factors that inhibit iron absorption

A

phytates, vegetable proteins, calcium, polyphenols, dietary factors, individual variation in absorption(health, stage in life cycle, and iron status)

94
Q

guidelines for a healthy pregnancy

A

good nutrition, healthy weight gain, physical activity, prenatal supplements, avoid harmful substances