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1

excessive water ingestion within a few hours (10 to 20 liters) within a few hours dilutes the sodium concentration of the blood and contributes to a danger condition known as

hyponatremia

2

what is central to the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure; homeostasis of bodily fluids

kidneys

3

to control the movement of water, the cells direct the movement of the major minerals

sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and sulfur

4

the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used

bioavailability

5

the american heart association goal is to lower blood pressure by reducing sodium intake to

less than 1500 milligrams a day

6

DASH diet - what does it stand for

dietary approaches to stop hypertension

7

what is dash diet effective in

lowering blood pressure

8

only 1 percent of calcium goes to

body fluids

9

other 99 percent of calcium goes to

bones and teeth

10

what does calcium do in bones

provides rigid framework that holds the body upright

11

what other things calcium does

maintain blood pressure, blood clotting, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning

12

calcium role

serves as calcium bank, offering a readily available source of calcium to body fluids should a drop in blood calcium occur

13

when there is low blood calcium, what stimulates CALCIUM reabsorption from kidneys into blood

vitamin D

14

what does vitamin D do in intestines associated with low blood calcium- to try to up calcium

enhances calcium absorption in intestines

15

what does vit D do in bones to help raise blood calcium

stimulates osteoclast cells to break down bone, releasing calcium into blood

16

vitamin D helps to make the what needed for calcium absorption

calcium-binding protein

17

factors that enhance nonheme iron absorption

MFP factor, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), acids (citric and lactic), and sugars(fructose)

18

can serve as a cofactor to enzymes involved in the numerous oxidation-reduction reactions that commonly occur in all cells

iron

19

enzymes involved in making amino acids, collagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters all require

iron

20

forms a part of electron carriers that participate in etc

iron

21

in red blood cells; where iron is found

hemoglobin

22

in muscle cells; where iron is found

myoglobin

23

who does iron deficiency affect the most

toddlers, adolescent girls, and women of childbearing age

24

the craving and consumption of ice, chalk, starch , and other nonfood substances; iron deficiency

pica

25

what is the worlds major source of iodine

the ocean

26

other sources of iodine

kelp, seafood, water, sea mist, salt that is iodized

27

eating as few a day as what improves selenium status

2 brazil nuts

28

what is a disease of copper deficiency

menkes disease

29

what is a disease of copper toxicity

wilson's disease

30

the intestinal cells absorb copper, but cannot release it into circulation causing life threatening deficiency

menkes disease

31

copper accumulates in the liver and brain, creating a life-threatening toxicity

wilson's disease

32

most of manganese can be found in the bones and metabolically active organs such as the

liver kidney and pancreas

33

present in virtually all soils, water supplies, plants, and animals; drinking water(if fluoridated), tea, seafood

fluoride

34

to gain muscle tissue, protein synthesis must be greater than degradation called

hypertrophy

35

becoming smaller; with regard to muscles, a decrease in size and strength because of disuse, undernutrition, or wasting disease; when protein degradation if greater than synthesis

atrophy

36

the ability of muscles to work against resistance

muscle strength

37

strength example exercises

pull-ups, pushups situps weightlifting pilates

38

flexibility example exercises

yoga

39

aerobic training example excersises

running, dancing, swimming, inline skating, power walking, etc

40

the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted

muscle endurance

41

the maximum rate of oxygen composition by an individual at sea level

VO2 max

42

combine high resistance(heavy weight) with a low number of reps (8-12)

muscle strength

43

combine moderate resistance (light to medium weight) with high velocity (as fast as safely possible)

muscle power

44

combine less resistance (lighter weight) with more reps (15-20)

muscle endurance

45

phosphagen system (creatine phosphate) fuel source

ATP-CP immediate availability 10 secs

46

activity example for phosphagen system

100 meter dash

47

fuel source for lactic acid system

ATP from carbohydrate (anaerobic glycolysis)

48

activity example for lactic acid

400 meter run, 100 meter swim, gymnastics

49

aerobic system of high intensity fuel source

ATP from carbs (glycolysis and TCA cycle)

50

aerobic system of moderate intensity fuel source

ATP from fat (fatty acid oxidation and TCA cycle)

51

activity example of aerobic high intensity

cycling, running

52

activity example of aerobic moderate intensity

hiking

53

training the muscles to store as much glycogen as they can beyond normal capacity, while supplying the dietary glucose to enable them to do so

carbohydrate loading

54

a potent antioxidant that vigorously defends cell membranes against the oxidative damage of free radicals

vitamin E

55

a transient condition of low hemoglobin in the blood associated with the early stages of sports training or other strenuous activity

sports anemia

56

the red blood cells do not diminish in size or number as in anemia, so the oxygen carrying capacity is not hindered

sports anemia

57

an adaptive temporary response to endurance training; does not require iron supplementation,

sports anemia

58

dehydrations first symptom is

fatigue

59

dehydration fatigue- a water loss of greater than what percent of body weight can reduce a persons capacity to do muscular work

2 percent

60

with a water loss of what percent is a person likely to collapse

7 percent

61

a water loss of of 2 percent in a person weighing 150 pounds is equal to

3 pounds

62

a water loss of 7 percent is equal to

10.5 pounds

63

the body heat builds up and triggers maximum sweating, but without sweat evaporation, little cooling takes place; in a humid environment, sweat does not evaporate well bc the surrounding air is already laden with water

hyperthermia

64

low body temp; below normal

hypothermia

65

should include plenty of fluids and be light and easy to digest

pre game meal

66

should provide between 300 and 800 kcal

pre game meal

67

should include carb-rich food (bread, potatoes, pasta and fruit juices and it should end 3 to 4 hours before competition

pre game meal

68

the organ that develops inside the uterus early in pregnancy, through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen and returns carbon dioxide and other waste products to be excreted; metabolically an active organ

placenta

69

malformations of the brain, spinal cord, or both during embryonic development that often results in lifelong disabilities or death

neural tube defects

70

no brain; the upper end of the neural tube fails to close

anencephaly

71

split brain; incomplete closure of the spinal cord and its bony encasement; most common neural defects

spina bifida

72

what is weight gain for underweight women (BMI<18.5)

28 to 40 pounds

73

weight gain for health weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9)

25-35 pounds

74

weight gain for overweight women (BMI 25.0-29.9)

15-25 pounds

75

weight gain for obese women (BMI >30)

11 to 20 pounds

76

what can staying active while pregnant do

improves cardiovascular fitness, limit excessive weight gain, prevent or manage gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension, and reduce stress

77

after the first trimester, energy needs of pregnant women are greater than those that are not pregnant an

energy needs while pregnant

78

how many additional kcal in second trimester

340

79

how many additional kcal in third trimester

450

80

low infant birthweight

5 1/2 pounds or less

81

what does WIC stand for

Women, infants and children

82

provides nutrition education and nutritious foods to infants, children to age 5 and pregnant of breast feeding women who qualify financially and have a high risk of medical or nutritious problems

WIC

83

glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy

gestational diabetes

84

alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause the irreversible mental and physical retardation of fetus

fetal alcohol syndrome

85

out of all the leading causes of mental retardation, which is the only that are preventable

FAS

86

to produce adequate supply of milk, a woman needs extra energy almost how many kcal per day above regular need during the first 6 months of lactation

500 kcal

87

to meet the 500 kcal goal, she can eat an extra how many kcal of food each day during the first 6 months of lactation

330 kcal

88

the what can provide the rest of energy for laction

fat reserves from pregnancy

89

most women need at least how many kcal a day to receive all the nutrients required for successful lactation

1800 kcal

90

the recommendation for total water during lactation is

3.8 liters per day (13 cups)

91

what is a supplement that breast feeding moms may need

iron

92

what provides infant formula at no cost

WIC

93

factors that inhibit iron absorption

phytates, vegetable proteins, calcium, polyphenols, dietary factors, individual variation in absorption(health, stage in life cycle, and iron status)

94

guidelines for a healthy pregnancy

good nutrition, healthy weight gain, physical activity, prenatal supplements, avoid harmful substances