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Flashcards in 65 OTC Deck (57):
1

What are the 3 classification of drugs? And, what law/year came up with that?

1. Prescription/legend-Durham Humphrey Amendments FDC act-1951
2. OTC- Durham Humphrey
3. Vitamins, minerals, and herbs- Dietary Supplement Health and Education- 1994

2

When is FDA involved for dietary supplements and herbals?

Only if safety concerns

3

What drug category falls under safe use w/minimal supervision?

OTC drugs

4

What category of drugs are regulated by FDA?

legend/ OTC

5

Does testing for efficacy for dietary/herbs exist? safety?

1. No
2. left to the manufacturer

6

What drug category has ongoing testing efficacy and ongoing?

OTC Drugs

7

Give 3 reasons for why we should be familiar with OTC agents?

1. Effective in treating common ailments
2. May worsen existing conditions or interfere with prescriptions
3. misuse/abuse may produce complications

8

What is a category I agent?

Useful and safe

9

What is a category 2 agent?

Unsafe or not useful

10

What is a category 3 agent?

unsure

11

What OTC category does brompheniramine and chlorpheniramine belong to?

H1 antihistamines- 1st gen-allergies

12

What OTC category does clemastine belong to?

H1 antihistamine-allergy- 1st gen

13

What OTC category does cetirizine and fexofenadine and loratadine belong to?

2nd Gen H1 antihistamine- allergy

14

What OTC category does dextromethorphan belong to?

antitussive- with codeine

15

What OTC category does oxymetazoline and xylometazoline belong to?

topical decongestants

16

What OTC category does guaifenesin belong to?

expectorants- reduce pulmonary mutants

17

What OTC category does benzoyl peroxide belong to?

acne vulgaris treatment

18

What OTC category does bismuth subsalicylate belong to?

miscellaneous antidiarrheal prepartions

19

What OTC category does polycarbophil, psyllium, and methyl cellulose?

bulk-forming laxative for constipation

20

What OTC category does Mg OH and polyethylene glycol belong to?

Osmotic laxative- for constipation

21

What OTC category does glycerin and bisacodyl belong to?

irritant laxative- for constipation

22

What OTC category does cyclizine and meclizine belong to?

antiemetics- prevent or treat motion sickness

23

What OTC category does diphenhydramine belong to?

A few- sleep aid, anti emetics etc.

24

What OTC category does doxylamine belong to?

sleep aids- for insomnia

25

What OTC category does nicotine polacrilex belong to?

smoking cessation

26

What OTC category does naphazoline and tetrahydrozoline belong to?

ophthalmic vasoconstrictors- for bloodshot eyes

27

What OTC category does orlistat belong to?

weight loss- for obesity

28

What does it mean when a prescription only agent is now available as OTC?

demonstrated that it is safe for general use

29

What does the FDA keep systematically reviewing ?

OTC products for efficacy and safety- categories 1 and III-- remember II was already proven to be unsafe

30

What are the 3 hidden drugs found in analgesics?

antihistamines, caffeine, sympathomimetics

31

What is the hidden drug found in antitussives?

local anesthetics

32

What are the 3 hidden drugs found in cold/allergy medications?

alcohol, aspirin and sympathomimetics

33

What is the hidden drug in dermatologic OTC?

local anesthetics

34

What are the 2 hidden drugs in menstrual OTCs?

antihistamines and caffeine

35

What OTC classes have antihistamines as a hidden drug?

analgesics and mestrual

36

What OTC classes have local anesthetics as hidden drugs?

dermatologic and antitussives

37

What are the 5 guidelines for use of OTCs?

1. select simplest formulation
2. select therapeutically effective dose
3. product appropriate for symptoms
4. recommend generic product
5. be wary of gimmicks

38

What are 3 ways products are made different by (gimmicks)?

1. adding other ingredients that don't contribute
2. brand names selected to suggest specific uses or strength
3. special formulation- may or may not be helpful

39

What happens due to the fact that the public gets generally overwhelmed by differences?

Will use the one that is most heavily advertised

40

What are excipients?

inactive ingredients

41

T_F- excipients are only found in OTC and not prescription drugs?

False- both

42

Are excipients approved by FDA?

yes - 100s used

43

What might excipients affect?

dissolution and absorption of drug

44

T-F-- CaSO4 increased phenytoin levels and lactose decreased phenytoin levels?

False- other way around

45

What are the alka-seltzer plus cold & sinus tablets active ingredients? inactive ingredients?

1. aspirin, phenylephrine
2. aspartame, docusate sodium

46

What are the active ingredients to sudafed?

pseudoephedrine

47

What are the active ingredients of advil PM?

ibuprofen, diphenhydramine

48

What is the active ingredient of afrin nasal spray?

oxymetazoline

49

Review avoidable cost to healthcare from Drug-drug interactions-

135 billion /year from ADRs

10-20% of those are from drug-drug

50

What drug-drug interactions prevent absorption?

1. chelation- cations/antibiotics
2. non-absorbable form- iron/H2 antagonist
3. non-specific binding- bile acid sequestrants

51

What are the 3 receptor interactions agonists and antagonists?

1. beta antagonist + beta2 agonist
2. methotrexate + folic acid
3. alpha1 +beta2 agonist

52

What is a common drug-drug interaction of catecholamines?

caffeine

53

What is a major drug-drug with antihistamines

alcohol

54

What is a major drug-drug with tetracyclines?

multivalent cations

55

What are 2 particularly dangerous interactions with warfarin?

NSAIDS and Macrolides

56

What are the 2 particularly dangerous interactions of ACE inhibitors?

K supplements, spironolactone

57

What is the most commonly overlooked interaction?

Inhibition of metabolic enzymes required for activation of prodrug