7/23 Part Two (Structure of Brain, Cranial Nerve Pathways) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7/23 Part Two (Structure of Brain, Cranial Nerve Pathways) Deck (30):
1

In an embryo, what are the portions included in these regions?
Forebrain:
Midbrain:
Hindbrain:

Forebrain: cerebrum, diencephalon
Midbrain: midbrain
Hindbrain: cerebellum and pons, medulla oblongata

2

The cerebrum is responsible for what?

-Conscious movement!!
Perception
Movement of somatopleure
Sensoro-motor integration
Emotion
Memory
Learning

3

The diencephalon is responsible for what?

-Maintaining balance!!
Homeostasis
Behavioral drives (hunger & thirst)
Coordination of neural & endocrine activities in hypothalamus
Sensory relay and modification in thalamus
Melatonin secretion in pineal gland

4

The midbrain (mesencephalon) is responsible for what?

Regulating auditory and visual reflexes

5

In the midbrain, what controls visual reflexes? Auditory reflexes?

Visual: superior colliculi
Auditory: inferior colliculi

6

The cerebellum is responsible for what?

(unconscious) Control of fine-tune control

7

Problems with the cerebellum result in what?

Ataxia (lack of order/muscle coordination)

8

What does the pons connect?

Links cerebellum with midbrain, diencephalon, cerebrum, & spinal cord

9

The medulla oblongata is responsible for what?

Vital involuntary functions (blood pressure, sleep, breathing, vomiting)

10

Where is the respiratory rhythmicity center? What does it do?

Medulla oblongata
It sets the pace for respiration

11

The sensory signals from the respiratory rhythmicity center have to pass through what first? What is the "location" called?

The pons
Apneustic and pneumatic centers for modifying respiration

12

The pons contains the CN nuclei of...

CN 5
CN 6
CN 7
CN 8

13

The medulla oblongata contains the CN nuclei of...

CN 8
CN 9
CN 10
CN 11
CN 12

14

Each hemisphere contains a large what? What separates them?

Lateral ventricle
Septum pellucidum

15

The ventricle in the diencephalon is called...

the third ventricle

16

How do the lateral ventricles communicate with the third?

interventricular foramen
(foramen of Monro)

17

What is the slender canal in the midbrain that separates the third and fourth ventricles?

aqueduct of midbrain
(cerebral aqueduct)

18

The CSF continuously circulates from the ventricles and central canal to where?

subarachnoid space
(of the surrounding cranial meninges)

19

In between what meninges does the CSF exist?

arachnoid pater and pia mater

20

CSF exits through fourth ventricle and gets into...

subarachnoid space (the middle of the arachnoid mater and pia mater)

21

What produces CSF? Inside where?

Choroid plexuses
inside ventricles

22

The dura mater splits into 2 and acts like a what? How?

a vein
blood is being drained away from the skull

23

Sticking out from the subarachnoid space and going into the venous substance (dura) is a what? What does it allow?

subarachnoid granulation
allows CSF to leave subarachnoid space and empty into venous blood, which then can carry the blood & CSF away from skull

24

Why is it important to carry CSF away from skull?

Choroid plexuses are ALWAYS producing CSF unless we die

25

What is the space in between the layers of the dura called? What do we call this formation of the dura?

dural/venous sinus
dural folds

26

What projects between the cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure?

falx cerebri

27

What protects the cerebellum and separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?

tentorium cerebelli

28

What divides the two cerebellar hemispheres along the midsagittal line inferior to the tentorium cerebelli?

falx cerebelli

29

What do we call the place where the transverse sinus and sagittal sinuses come together?

Confluence of sinuses

30

Arteries leading to circles arteriosus cerebri:

Right carotid artery
Left carotid artery
Basilar artery (formed from right and left vertebral arteries)